Download file to see previous pages...
ians but as the time passed, popes and Christian kings used it for their own political benefit2 and this benefit was based on blood shedding of thousands of Christians and Muslims.
Modern exploration of crusades is commenced by Erdmann’s work, Die Entstehung des Kreuzzugsgedankens3 in the year 1935. According to him crusades were the product of the eleventh century. They were a means of transmitting the active military towards another place. They can be regarded as products of the reform movement which were used to purify the church and the Christian society as a whole. In Erdmann’s opinion the apparent aim of the crusades was Jerusalem.
The rescue of the Holy City was the motivation that made Pope call the First Crusade or it was according to Erdmann’s view, in the defense of Eastern Christians. The actual words of Urban II are still unknown but according to Cowdrey, the pope was worried about the holy city i.e. Jerusalem and that was when the first crusade was given birth.
There is little criticism received to Erdmann’s work but Cowdrey criticized it. In his opinion, the crusades are linked to the Cluniac reform4. George VII (1073-85), Victor III (1086-7) and Urban II (1088-99) are examples in this context.
Historians also believed that the medieval men could not take up the religious words uttered by them. They believed that the post Enlightenment era was full of people who talked about profiting the world hereafter but actually they were into profiting the existing world for themselves. The modern investigations led by Jonathan Riley Smith have proved it to the world that the number of men and women who participated in the crusades is larger than known to history. The crusade army was a mix of rich, poor, saints, sinners and all of them had some kind of motivation to do so.
Pope Urban’s preaching motivated the people for the First Crusade which was successful for them as well because the drive for it was “spiritual”5. Muslims were not
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
From this paper it is clear that the term crusade is also used in describing religious, economic and political wars of between 1000 and 1600 in territories that were not within the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean). In these regions, the crusader wars mainly targeted the heretics, pagans and the excommunicated people.
The trend worried the Christians as it presented a threat to the growth of the religion in other parts of the world. Being the birthplace of Jesus, the man accredited with the inception of the church knew that the region bore great importance. Led by Pope Urban the second, the Roman Catholic and other Christian afflictions formed armies and attacked the Islamic empire in the Middle East in the areas surrounding Jerusalem (KOHLER, 2004 p.
Many expeditions were marked by Sultans and Emperors that led their armies with great bravery and zeal. The Muslims conquered three-quarters of the Christian world under the reign of sequential leaders and zealous armies (Madden, 2013). Muslims faced many crusades which were led by less religious motivations and more of greed, politics and territorial expansions.
Peter) or milites Christi (knights of Christ). They considered themselves pilgrims or those who are undertaking a journey to the Holy Land, though wearing weapon was prohibited for the pilgrims. Like pilgrims, each crusader swore at vow (a votus), and prayed for successful reaching Jerusalem.
With a more complex structure and often radically with different opinions and agendas, the Reform movement was not initiated by Gregory VII but by his predecessors (Cushing, 1998, p. 12). That is why it is now called as the 'Gregorian Reform'.
The early years of Urban II's reign were a time of difficulty for the Gregorian party, and the role which Urban played both in rescuing the Reform and in charting new directions for the church is well known to scholars.
Trouble was brewing in Crusader- ruled Jerusalem. Riddle by political intrigue and uncertain leadership, the Crusader were vulnerable to attack. Challiton undermined the peace treaties between the Muslims and the Crusaders. Having his own Scimitar, Saladin promised
There rose two leaders who were Din and Nur who ruled both Egypt and Syria. The nephew of the two leaders named Salah ed Din prepared to move the christian states in a holy war. The hope of recovering the states died when Manuel Comnenus was defeated at Myricephalum
He was certain to his spiritual correctness and deaf to the aesthetics of other Christian Eucharist’s. He had conviction in predestination and knew that he had been chosen by God to do great things. While in school, Wilson fancied being the
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic The Crusader for FREE!