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The paper tells that in the UN summit, all the governments and Heads of States saw the need for each state to protect the citizens from genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Indeed, the assurance of sovereignty protects the small states from the dictatorial rule that the dominant states would exercise on them. Essentially, the sovereign country should have inbuilt mechanisms of fighting crimes, however, it may seek international assistance where the threat is significant and worries the state security. The implication is that each state has to build a strong and reliable coordination with other countries, whose help becomes essential during a war. Therefore, one can argue strongly that sovereignty should not bar the state from forging the strong relationship with the other countries. In addition, inappropriate use of sovereignty would mean protecting the self-interest at the expense of the citizens. Some of the key catalysts to sovereignty include the political will, need for international integration and ethnic co-existence. Fundamentally, the leadership will and peaceful co-existence ensure that the sovereign state remains peaceful and coherent. In addition, it would enable the state to build a proper relationship with other states, thereby, being in a position of getting international assistance during the emergency. Furthermore, this would enhance international integration among different countries. Legally, the states are obliged to use sovereignty for the interest of the people, safeguard them and ensure that they free to live and interact in the country. The protection is legal and spelled out in the constitution, thereby, being credible and legitimate. In the contemporary society, Jackson acknowledges that there are State powers that do not use their sovereignty for the good of the people. For example, some developing states literally misuse sovereignty to achieve personal or ethnic gains, with disregards to the public. Indeed, the theory of the balance of power explains the misuse of state sovereignty resulting from the differences in power factions within the country.
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The situation in the present Somalia, and Liberia and Sierra Leone in the 1990s demonstrates the difficulties that the peace efforts have faced in particular regions and the extensive human suffering that armed conflicts have brought in their wake.
However, if the state is unwilling or unable to do this, then its sovereignty is temporarily suspended, the international community takes over the responsibility to protect, and other nations can step in to protect that country’s citizens (Pattison, 2009, p.
The Responsibility to Protect (henceforth referred to as R2P) is a commitment arrived at by international convention as a concerted response to the Rwanda massacre. R2P received formal approval as an international human rights doctrine at the United Nations World Summit in 2005.
Throughout history, states were fighting each others for the reason of extending their power and authority, generally by invading other states. Often, the rights of the people who lived within the territory of the countries under conflict will be violated; yet wars are not the only form of human rights violation.
In paragraphs 138 and 139 of the Outcome Document ofthe Summit, the Assembly endorsed the principle that sovereignty was not just a right but a responsibility, and established that all nations have a "responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity" (World Summit Outcome 31).
Responsibility to protect concentrates on the prevention, as well as faltering four crimes i.e. genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes, along with crimes against humanity that take place beneath the generic umbrella expression of Mass Atrocity Crimes (Welsh 2004, p.6).
Humanitarian Intervention-The Responsibility to Protect Development Name: Code: Collage: Date: Introduction Humanitarian intervention incorporates the use of armed military forces by a State against another state with the aim of protecting the life and liberty of citizens under humanitarian crisis who are unwilling or unable to free or protect themselves.
The debate centers around what means and under what circumstances can countries force their will on another nation. In many instances of 'ethnic cleansing,' government officials themselves have committed these atrocities on its citizens but U.N. regulations prohibit external interventions into the internal dealings of a nation.
The responsibility to protect is founded on two principles. State sovereignty necessarily infers that the state is responsible for protecting people within its own territory. Where populations are exposed to grave harm and the relevant state is either unable or unwilling to stop or prevent it, the concept of non-intervention is superseded.
2. Universities and 3. Government needs to work together to fill up the gaps between them which is the cause of downfall. These three organizations need to construct faith among them to produce practically equipped graduates with thorough research implementations.
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