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: The major factors of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc are interconnected because internal conflict and the reformatory policies (say, Perestroika and Glasnost) of the later leaders hindered the full-fledged development of communism.
One can see that internal conflict (say, ideological) and economic burden accelerated the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Within this context, political policies adopted by Joseph Stalin were totally against the people. Besides, the war in Afghanistan proved to be an economic burden to Soviet Union. The communist policies like control over media and single party system resulted in the totalitarian control of communist party over the mainstream society. Moreover, the arms race during the Cold War era affected the economic backbone of Soviet Union. Industrialization helped the military in Soviet Union to be the most powerful tool of the state. The lack of productivity resulted in the economic collapse of Soviet Union in 1980s. The measures adopted by Mikhail Gorbachev, like Perestroika and Glasnost, did not help Soviet Union to save itself from its ultimate collapse. In short, internal conflicts originated from political and economic factors accelerated the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the origin of Russia.
The most important factor behind the collapse of the Eastern Bloc was the collapse of Stalinism in Soviet Union. Earlier, the fall of German imperialism at the end of the WWII was exploited by the communist leaders in Soviet Union to spread communist ideology in Europe. Perry, Berg and Krukones (2009), state that “Meanwhile, the Soviet Union created international mechanisms to oversee and exploit the region’s economic production and military resources, so that the phrase “ Eastern Bloc” became entirely fitting” (p.311). For instance, the European nations like Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia etc were under the control of Soviet Union, especially Stalinism.
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Zhivago caught in the complicated history of Russia. What has become of Russia today? Russia, Soviet Union (USSR before), then, was perceived to be one of the richest, most powerful countries in the world to be casted side by side with world power countries like the United States, Japan, France, China, Germany and Britain.
Be sure to include in your answer some discussion of (1) Gorbachev's analysis of the problems confronting the USSR; (2) the remedies he proposed; and (3) their consequences. "Perestroika is a pressing necessity that has arisen out of the profound processes taking place in the course of the development of our socialist society.
The author concludes the article by pointing out that collapse of the Soviet Union at the beginning of 1990s is related to the intellectual and moral uprising from the side of the mass. Within this context, the policies implemented by Mikhail Gorbachev (Glasnost and Perestroika) accelerated the collapse of the Soviet Union.
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“Perestroika” is a Russian term which literally means rebuilding. It originated first in the 18th century and re-emerged in the 1980s when Mikhail Gorbachev, then the President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR), used it as the slogan for his economic reforms. During that time, perestroika was used not only to refer to economic reforms with the use of technological advances at the minimum cost of time, resources and effort but eventually evolved into a revolutionary term which subsumed social and civic reforms.
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