This paper consists of answers the questions on history. It contains the next topics: Globalization, The UN Security Council, the Cold War, Marxism, State Sovereignty, Collective Security, New thinking, Liberalism…
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One of the questions the paper deals with is liberalism. The term liberalism has its roots in the Age of enlightenment in the eighteenth century. The intellectual and philosophical developments of that age aspired towards governmental consolidation, centralization and primacy of the nation-state, and greater rights for common people. . Its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals. The topic modern liberalism is so wide and consists of political, economical, cultural, and social aspects. It emphasizes the rights of individual and equality of opportunities and freedom of thoughts and the freedom of expression of ideas. Enlightenment thinkers believed that systematic thinking might be applied to all areas of human activity. Its leaders believed they could lead their states to progress after a long period of tradition, irrationality, superstition, and tyranny which they imputed to the Middle Ages.
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Since the appearance of globalization, as a political and economic trend, the role of the state has been highly changed. The superiority of the state, even in regard to its own interests, has been harmed while the activities of global networks have been highly promoted.
Neorealism national security and defence is important for the growth and development of the economy.3 While Liberalism, Marxism (and Gramscianism) and Neorealism have common grounds such as the importance of a ruling body to maintain internal and external peace and order, they also differ in other aspects such as what factors control economic growth and core beliefs of each theory.
Basing on the economic perspective, liberals in 19th century said that, the state should not interfere with the economic life of the society. To support this argument one of the liberals Adam Smith said that, economic states which are based on free markets are more prosperous than those which are controlled by the state.
The author states that many contemporary scholars have tried to explain how international affairs are conducted and what foreign policies should be concerned with, but their views are very divergent and a policy maker has to decide the guiding theory or view. Three main competing paradigms: realism, liberalism and constructivism have different strands.
Kenneth Waltz, in his article Neo Realism outlined in his book Theory of International Politics (1979) argues that "the world exists in a state of perpetual international anarchy (the lack of an effective central authority over states) as no state can fully trust any other state or completely understand their policies." Every state in the world seems to be having a hidden agenda of its own, with its national and international priorities to meet and this becomes the basis of mutual suspicion.
This paper concerns the realism and liberalism as the two major theories of international politics. Although they differ with respect to their basic assumptions about the nation-state, the international order and the role of conflict in the international system, both of them provide substantial insight into the ways in which the international order is structured.
The author states that all current efforts to understand the role of culture in transforming the international system is initiated with an ontological idea that seems to be the contrary of the state of nature. International system theories have generally regarded culture a problematic notion to address.
Joseph (1999) defines international relations as the study of the forms of relations that exist among nations within the international political system. The outbreak of the First World War and increasing complexity of contracts among
offer public wellness ranging from security and peace to development and monetary stability1.Numerous policy pupil hopes to work for an international organization some day. Still numerous of the most important and oldest international organizations around the globe today are
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