War can be defined in a number of ways which can be based from the experience of states and other actors as shown by world history. It can be defined as a state or period of armed conflict, a condition of antagonism or conflict or that which can be related to military science…
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Throughout history, the importance of war became a major component of a state's foreign policy as demonstrated by myriad of instances showing armed conflict. In the field of international relation particularly on the concept of conflict versus cooperation, war represents a vital option in one extreme of the dimension. With certain peculiarities of different events involving war, resort to force by a state almost always forms part of the foreign policy a country. When diplomacy, negotiation and other peaceful means of settling dispute fails, war can serve as a remedy to determine the final outcome of conflicting sides in an issue.
The discussion in this paper will cover five incidents of interstates wars, namely, (1) the Vietnam War, (2) the Opium War, (3) World War I, (4) the Persian Wars, and (5) the Peloponnesian War. The causes mentioned herein may not be the only reasons for the outbreak of the war or the commencement of the conflict situation discussed but is compelling enough to be considered in the extensive study of the subject matter.
Analyzing the above mentioned wars, it can be seen that they share certain similar cause although in a different form or peculiar way. Although, the warring states or the participants involved were diverse, still, there were some that appears common among the wars to be discussed. What is therefore the implication of having different participants for every event of war This means varying interest involved for the reason that the acts of a state is presumed to be in accordance with its interest within the context of its national and international policy.
For a better understanding of the causes of the war in those five events and ultimately to support the response to the question of why states go to war, it is imperative to start with a general framework. This general framework will serve as the thesis to the proposition of state engaging in war in the cases herein discussed as well as to the proposition of the difficulty in withdrawing from the war once they resort to violence. From this framework, other supporting analysis will be discussed and expounded in the subsequent pages of this paper.
From the ancient war days involving the Peloponnesian war and the Persian wars, down to the economic nature of the Opium war, leading to the large scale conflict in World War I, and finally to the ideologically driven Vietnam War, one thesis stands out why they resorted still to violence to further advance whatever interest they may declare - the Desire for POWER. In the words of realist advocates in international politics, this is appropriately stated as interest defined in the concept of power.
Power is defined as the actual or potential influence or coercion a state (or other actors)an assert relative to other actors or non-state actors because of the political, geographic, economic and financial, technological, military, social, cultural or other capabilities it possesses.2 The definition of power involves a variety of interest and generally embodies every aspect of a state's policy from which its capabilities is premised. It is not therefore surprising that the behavior of a state is immensely affected by its desire to increase power or when the power it has is being threatened of reduction.
This framework does not confine its operation to states but can also be used in analyzing the behavior of
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Second, Solon's reforms and Peisistratus’ seizing control of Sigeum had made Athens especially sensitive to any threats to its grain route from the Black Sea. Further complicating this was the fact that several Athenian nobles held lands in the North Aegean.
10). Both wars were fought by groups, each against the other. Each of the opposing sides each had their own allies fighting in strategic parts of the world. The two wars also had profound effect on society and world politics. The victorious countries in both wars later emerged to be the world’s superpowers, such as the US and Russia (p.15).
Namibia has historically been disintegrated by the apartheid policies of South Africa; ethnic individualities have played a key role in establishing the politics of the nation. On the southwestern coast of Africa, neighboring the South Atlantic Ocean and Benguela Ocean current, lies the Republic of Namibia.
Since a war involves an engagement with the enemy, the plan made by one party may fail, since the planning is done without full information regarding the status of the enemy. This is worsened by war propaganda and military misinformation techniques applied, which serve to represent the enemy in a way that is different from the reality (Ross, 41).
For the entire 20th century, he estimates 130-142 million war-related deaths and a chilling 214-226 million if government killings in non-war situations are included." In the 1950s, the globe averaged 13 wars each year. In the 1960s, the globe averaged 19 wars each year.
It was during the breakfast on October 16th that President Kennedy acquired information from the Intelligence bureau about Soviet Unions secret missile base in Cuba. Soviet foreign minister Andrei Gromyko met the President Kennedy and he denied any kind of threat caused by the missile base to the U.S.
It was a provocative political movement where US armed forces tried to takeover Cuban command where Soviet leaders in Cuba were prepared to employ nuclear weapons in order to defend the island in case of
Many historians tend to believe that the handling of the Cuban missile crisis by the then United States president J.F. Kennedy was a success. On the other hand the quick administration response from J.F. Kennedy formed a core basis on which other nations like the United States should deploy when dealing with other nations like Iran.
The Cuban Missile crisis brought a lot of confusion between the world super powers: the United States and Russia. This was because the two countries were in a competition to gain world influence. The Soviet Union was for communism and hence advocated for it. The United States on the hand greatly championed for capitalism.
Responding to the failed Bay of Pigs invasion that took place in 1961 as well as the presence of American ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey which was against the USSR with Moscow within range, the leader of the Soviet Union agreed to the request by Cuba to
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