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Kosovo - Essay Example

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Kosovo In 1994, a report was released by the UN Development Program describing two legs of human security. According to the first leg, state does not abuse its citizens while according to the second, the state takes active participation in the citizens’ welfare…
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Download file to see previous pages Albanians and Kosovar Serbs could be managed. Old ethnic tensions between these communities were revived with the death of Josif Tito in 1980 as well as the disintegration of Yugoslavia subsequently. Slobodan Milosevic, a nationalistic and opportunistic politician rose to the presidency of Serbia and put an end to Kosovo’s semi-autonomous status and infuriating the Albanian population in majority. This laid foundations of conflict between Kosovar Albanians and Kosovar Serbs. The former formed militias like the radical Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) in order to struggle for independence whereas the latter had the support of Belgrade. The main international actor that entered the conflict was The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) after a series of failed international diplomacy with Serbia. The main cause of conflict of Kosovo was that NATO had underestimated Kosovo’s importance to the ethnic mythologies of the Albanians and the Serbs that had been making territorial claims to the Balkans. While the Serbs claimed leadership of Kosovo because this was desired by God, Albanians had the reason of their ancient Illyrian ancestors being from Kosovo. The first breaches of non-violence in Kosovo happened in 1995 and 1996 (Bideleux). In 1998, Kosovo erupted into a full-fledge armed conflict in part in result of the Albanian armed uprisings of spring 1997. Up to 700,000 weapons were transported to Kosovo in those uprisings which helped the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) to gain control of a third of Kosovo and unleash a guerrilla war. NATO was persuaded by the Balkans to withdraw from military intervention because if KLA succeeded, adjacent Macedonia could be destabilized. The Balkans called for respect of civil rights and restoration of autonomy in Kosovo. NATO’s intention behind launching air campaign against the Serbian forces was meant for the development of political and humanitarian conditions. However, NATO made a mistake in not making use of overwhelming force in support of the diplomatic efforts. The Serbs reconsidered negotiations because of the threat of increase of warplanes as well as a rise in the attacks’ tempo. Kosovo was a confrontation between the Serbs and the Albanians that led to a situation of negative peace in spite of all efforts of NATO as well as international commitment and funding that happened post-war. With the ability to secure one population, the international community had to encounter security dilemmas in the phase after the conflict including protection of a minority which was treated as an enemy before. As the Yugoslav army assassinated and evicted Kosovar Albanians, NATO’s became successful in the air campaign and was in the position to achieve security for the Albanians. However, the occupation’s unanticipated long-term consequences and lack of clarity about the exit strategy’s long-term objectives deterred a strategic solution, thus laying the foundations of a status quo political environment in which Kosovo remained unsettled. Although the last war cannot be fought by the strategists, that last campaign has many lessons for them. A very important lesson to be learned from the conflict in Kosovo is for the external international actors like NATO; when the international actors tend to protect a select minority group in a certain area that is already divided among ethnic, tribal, and religious lines or communities, these actors’ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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