This paper intends to research the history of affirmative action policies for both graduate and undergraduate programs in the United States, as well as develop an argumentative paper drawing a conclusion about the constitutionality of these policies…
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As such, matters related to sharing, equality, and fairness are of paramount importance and frequently give rise to need for mechanisms for addressing implications that come along with these mechanisms. Affirmative action traces its roots back in the Reconstruction Era whereby after slaves attained freedom, they had nothing else apart from small skills that could use to earn a living2. As a result, the victorious General T. Sherman set forth a proposal that was to divide the land and goods of the Southeastern Georgia into sizeable proportions and give the freed family 40 acres of land and a mule in order to begin their lives3. This move attracted a huge level of opposition from the sitting clergy. However, almost a century later, this issue of affirmative action has come back to haunt opponents of this policy. Today, the lawful society of the United States recognizes the idea of assisting individuals of minority decency to gain access to American goods. This came via a series of political initiatives and court proceedings that interpreted all the requirements of the civil rights just as provided in the Fourteenth Amendment 4. These initiatives, as well as court decisions, came into books as affirmative action. As the term itself suggests, it is both voluntary and mandatory in that it intends to affirm civically recognized rights of the designated classes of people by employing a positive action in order to protect these individuals from the rampant, all round, and pervasive incidents of discrimination in America. Sources indicate that affirmative action developed about four decades ago following the debate between the Board of Education and Brown5. In terms of Brown, the Supreme Court opined that children of minority races faced segregation and discrimination in areas of education. This fact denied these children equal education opportunities and rejected the doctrine that asserted “separate but equal” within the public schools6. Following increased cases of discrimination and victorious wins in wars like the Vietnam War, men and women of minority groups intensified their fight for equal rights. These members were able to integrate change in the nation’s existing laws and attained collective address in the Fourteenth Amendment. Following the success of affirmative action, members of the minority groups attained places in the employment and education sector. As the focus of this paper ascertains, changes in both the graduate and undergraduate programs in the US grew due to increased criticism from whites and men who claimed that the policies of affirmative action brought about something they termed as the “reverse discrimination”. To ensure, successful integration of affirmative action policies in undergraduate and graduate programs, the Court acted before business legislatures and executives and mandated coalition of positive actions in these programs7. As a matter of course, the Court set in place a number of devices that integrated and fostered indiscriminative measures towards students from minority backgrounds. These devices included majority to minority transfers, redistricting, new construction, magnet schools, school pairings, abandonment of all blacks’ schools, and busing. Investigations highlight that implications related to affirmative action particularly when compared to race consciousness and race blind admissions give explanations as to how alternative programs are impractical in general. With reference to a number of discussions, selections that base solely on academia qualifications such as the Medical College Admissions Test and Grade Point Averages
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“Affirmative Action Policies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/history/1453348-research-the-history-of-affirmative-action.
Representatives of minorities and women were segregated into low paid and less perspective jobs, while some minorities - for example Chinese or Korean, were legally forbidden to own land. Until the second decade of the last century, even white women were legally deprived of the political rights and in many states they could not enter certain occupational fields, such as law, journalism, and medicine.
The author states that it is based on the concept that by increasing the opportunities for the minority populations, the existence gaps can be addressed. In its responses, the paper suggests that affirmative action is indeed necessary in addressing the current problems that are attributed to social categorizations.
As those details were not mentioned in the conditions given, it was supposed that the company of Basil is not having any encumbrances regarding financial transactions. As no partner of the company is holding 51% of the shares in the company any decision should taken by majority.
It also applies to the awarding of other social benefits for these groups. The problem is that some people consider it to be reverse discrimination (Bardach, 2005; Holzer and Neumark, 2000 and Holzer and Neumark, 2006).The Civil Rights Act of 1964 started the whole push towards affirmative action.
These policies also aim to encourage public institutions to represent minorities. Affirmative action is promoted using recruitment programs for applicants from disadvantaged groups. In certain cases favored treatment is given to minorities which is known as reverse
hieving full and fair participation of all members of the society, who were initially not fully utilized in the work place, and negatively impacted by the policies (Schmidt, 2008).
According to Schmidt (2008), equal opportunities in employment give a guide on employment of
In essence, the southern states embarked on an objective, which resulted in formulating racial segregation laws (Katznelson 4). Some New Deal and Fair Deal policies, which were initiated by the U.S. government to help the unemployed and the poor, turned
The theme behind affirmative action, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2009, para.1), is to take positive steps “to increase the representation of women and minorities in areas of employment, education, and business from which they have been historically excluded.” Affirmative action has seen great controversy under situations where preferential selection has to be made, that is, where selection has to be made on the basis of race and gender.
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