The Notion of Type and its Importance in the 20th Century - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The aim of this essay is to discuss the notion of type and its importance for the early 20th century architectural discourse through reference to Hermann Muthesius and the German Werkbund, Adolf Loos, and Le Corbusier…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.7% of users find it useful
The Notion of Type and its Importance in the 20th Century
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The Notion of Type and its Importance in the 20th Century"

Download file to see previous pages Deutscher Werkbund was established in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius and Friendrich Naumann in order to consolidate art and industry . The debates surrounding Werkbund focused on Muthesius' concept of “Typisierung”. According to Muthesius, mass production denoted standardization; however, he combined the economic concept of standardization with Platonic ideal types. Muthesius' ideas were heavily criticized by a number of artists and architects. The debate between him and Van de Velde was not about mechanization, but on the role of the artist. Whereas Muthesius asserted that the artist was separated and abstracted from the production process, Van de Velde advocated the artistic freedom and creativity . Muthesius and Werkbund did not care much about the Fordist aspects of the mass production, rather they tried to bring organization to the otherwise chaotic world of the mass production ruled by fashion, individualism and arbitrariness. Peter Behrens' designs for AEG, which were called Types, epitomized the various tendencies within the Werkbund. Behrens's workplace in Berlin has become an atelier for many young architects including Walter Gropius, Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, who would shape the Modern Movement. They learned architecture directly from Behrens. As Curtis noted Le Corbusier practicality and idealism was enhanced through his work for Peter Behrens, who saw mechanization as a vital force in creation of the modern culture.5 Figure 1, Peter Behrens, Types, AEG, 1912. The Werkbund's approach was influential until the end of World War I. However, later on, both Gropius and Le Corbusier abandoned the theoretical approaches of the Werkbund. Before 1914, debates were focused on the design of commodities. After 1920, the architectural issues have increasingly become the focus. Adolf Loos holds a special place in the history of modern architecture, not just as a pioneering figure of the Modern movement, but also as a critic of the Werkebund. In his influential article “Ornament and Crime” (1908) he argued that elimination of ornaments from the useful objects was beneficial to culture “reducing the time spent on manual labour and releasing energy for the life of the mind”6. This article can be regarded as an attack to the Werkebund in a sense that it was unacceptable for Loos to give the artist a form-giving role7. He did not believe that the artist is the creator of everyday useful objects8.According to him, style was the outcome of several economic and cultural conditions. Hence he also criticized Muthesius on the ground that he substituted form for ornament9. As Kenneth Frampton indicated , for Loos “all culture depended on a certain continuity with the past; above all, on a consensus as to a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“The Notion of Type and its Importance in the 20th Century Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/history/1409664-the-notion-of-type-and-its-importance-in-the-20th-century
(The Notion of Type and Its Importance in the 20th Century Essay)
https://studentshare.org/history/1409664-the-notion-of-type-and-its-importance-in-the-20th-century.
“The Notion of Type and Its Importance in the 20th Century Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/history/1409664-the-notion-of-type-and-its-importance-in-the-20th-century.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The Notion of Type and its Importance in the 20th Century

The 20th Century

...? The Twentieth Century. While Europe was the main battleground of World War II, the ramifications of the war were felt all over the globe. The political alignments which prevailed in the 1930s were drastically altered and the post-war world was markedly different from its earlier dispensation. The redrawing of national boundaries, and the establishment of new spheres of influence, was an inevitable part of the spoils of war for the victorious nations. These changes impacted on the non-Western world, particularly Africa, Asia and the Middle East. To a great extent, the many challenges confronted by these nations were the result of doctrines and rivalries which originated in the West. The non-Western world of the twentieth century... acts of...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

20th century literary theory

...20th Century Literary Theory In the literary theory of the twentieth century, Karl Marx (1818-1883) has been one of the most important theorists whohave influenced the course of literary theory. The Marxist literary theory which emphasises the themes of class conflict in literary creations has been a major development in the twentieth century literary theory. Marxist literary theory can be comprehended as a sociological approach to literature which considers literary pieces as the results of the workings of the historical forces. Whereas the Marxist literary theory developed through the literary theorists such as Georg Lukcs, Valentin Voloshinov, Raymond...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

20th Century American Liberalism

...American Liberalism in the 20th century is an ideology often associated with the philosophy of John Rawls. This idea of individualism and equality isthe basic tenet of this contention in the field of politics. However, two other leading political philosophers of the previous and the present century contributed astute and fresh ideas to the liberal thought instituted by Rawls which in turn made the subject of American Liberalism a more controversial field of study in the present century. Rawls' Lecture II in his book a Theory of Justice put forward ideas on pluralism, individualism, equality and moral psychology (Rawls, 40). However, these ideas were challenged, asserted or weakened by the modern philosophers such as David Ricci... scientists...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

20th century music

...associated with jazz. Preoccupation of The 20th century The practicality of linking the art of composition, as opposed to that of performance to mechanical, electromechanical or purely electronic machines have been a mainly 20th-century preoccupation. The 20th-century saw its crop of mechanical performers. The revolution in sound: electronic music/ (1960), Milton Babbitt writes: "all factors militate against the composition of complex contemporary music: the uncompensated time involved in its composition, the crushing costs of preparing materials, the inadequate number of rehearsals, and the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

20th century arts

..., Marlon Brando went to represent our period’s portrait of the mass man – in effect changing our attitude and standards towards film, performance and entertainment. As with The Beatles, he epitomized the rebel icon which helped define not just the American but the world’s pop culture. (Marshall and Stilwell, p. 86) Le Corbusier No other architect could claim a stake on modernism in architecture than the European avant-garde artist Le Curbosier. During the first decades of the twentieth century, transatlantic exchange within the culture of architecture reached its first maturity. And Le Corbusier was central both to the critical reception of ideas imported from Europe and to the transition to modernism. (Bacon, p. xiii) His concept... ...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

20th Century Literature

...resourcefulness and optimism in adorning the place where he will initially commence his pivotal economic success. Moreover, through managing his own business and making important decisions all by himself, he was able to exercise his free will to its full capacity which Marx really admires. Marx argued that working for an owner of production is a transgression to one’s free will and true self-identity. For him, labor under the pretext of wage and capital is dehumanizing while labor that is situated on a communal interest and consciousness is liberating and self-fulfilling. This particular assumption of Marx was clearly the case for the baker who devised a way to be both the superior and the inferior in...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

20th century music

...20th century music The music of 20th century was diverse in form, with wide experimentation and innovative musical styles. Besides, its unique identity was distinct from other musical styles of the19th century. It was a rebellion against current trend of music composition and an extension of late Romantic style. One can discover immense examples for the influence of Folk and Popular music in classical music composers of the 20th century. Folk music, the term coined by Johann Gottfried Herder in 18th century, was explained as a music genre transmitted orally by peasants and rural singers. Later, it was explained as a particular kind of popular music. Popular music or simply Pop music, another branch of music is defined as the part... of...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

20th Century Humanities

...and encourage mutual cooperation. For those who look forward to the developments in arts and literature in the future can understand the relationship between man, society and Arts by studying 20th Century Humanities. The concepts of International Architecture were also introduced during the early Twentieth century. It is for sure that the future of architecture is definitely going to be different than what was developed in the 2oth century; however, its importance cannot be denied. When people talk about ‘Green Architecture’ being the future, its foundations run deep down in the concept of International Architecture....
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

20th-Century Art

...Steps of Art Criticism A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte1 1884-1886 by: Georges Seurat  A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte is a classic painting masterpiece by George Seurat. He used the technique extensively known as pointillism. In this technique, contrasted color dots are used to paint the picture that gives the impression of a single hue to the viewer. This piece of art wasn’t made overnight, in fact Seurat spent over two years on this single painting. He used to sit quietly at a park and would focus on its light techniques, color combinations and form. The size of the painting is approximately 2 by 3 meters (6 ft 10 in x 10 ft 1 in). Analyze One not needs to look at the picture for...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Fashion in 20th century

...of fabric that a manufacturer could buy and put to use on a garment. The high limitations and rationing of raw materials meant there were no visible class indicators on the clothing styles especially for women. Dressing style for all women during the war was similar, drawing another relational aspect with women who served during the war. Women in war service had to adopt the trousers as an extreme and practical necessity, which also found its way into the streets. Nevertheless, the largest driving factor of the fashion changes that were evident during and after the war came from the government’s stance on rationing. Rationing by the government did not target the fashion industry alone but was meant to increase the raw...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic The Notion of Type and its Importance in the 20th Century for FREE!

Contact Us