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The Integumentary System - Essay Example

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Name: Date: The Integumentary System Introduction As “integument” means covering, the integumentary system provides protection for body surface and the openings found on the human body. This system has many collective structures, to perform its function properly…
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The Integumentary System
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Download file to see previous pages The system is known to provide protection to human beings and other mammals through elastic covering on the outer-surface of the body. This covering is cushioned and self-repairing, while providing a water coating to the body surface. Structures of integumentary system The system structure comprises of cutaneous membrane and accessory structures. The cutaneous membrane has several layers, described below. Major layers Broadly, the system comprises of three major layers, hypodermis being the deepest of these layers. The other two are dermis and superficial epidermis. Within the epidermis, tough and fibrous protein Keratin is produced by the Keratinocytes in its upper layers. The system provides for the reproduction of cells to repair upper layers, in case of any damage to them. Dermis layer contains connective tissues, which are elastic in ligaments and comprise of packed collagen fibers. Hypodermis layer provides covering for the skin connected with underlying tissues. It is an adipose tissue that may have carotene deposits. (Structures of Integumentary System, 4.2) Sub layers Stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum are the layers that belong to epidermis, apart from stratum lucidum, stratum corneum and Stratum basale. In Dermis major layer, there is papillary layer which has capillaries for nourishing the pain and touch receptors. The reticular layer has cutaneous blood vessels with larger capillaries. The epocrine are sweat glands, responsible for regulation of body temperature, while secreting fluid when same is high. The free nerve endings act as pain receptors; the meissner’s corpuscles are touch receptors and pacinian corpuscles are deep pressure receptors. (Timby, 358) Hair follicles, nails and exocrine glands belong to accessory structures. Integumentary system—functional organization As the structure of this system suggests, it comprises of skin, mummery glands, sweat and oil, as well as, nails and hair. Skin being an important part of the human anatomy, it tells the medical professionals about any possible internal problems, while providing an overall picture about the health of the person, under clinical investigation. The function of integumentary system includes protection of human body from environmental dangers, regulation of body temperature and synthesis of vitamin D3.The function also includes, among other things, providing sensory information as well as coordination of immune response to skin cancers. As epidermis and dermis form the part of cutaneous membrane, epidermis is responsible for preventing water loss, while controlling skin permeability. Epidermis also functions for detection of touch, pain, pressure and temperature through sensory receptors. While epidermis protects dermis from chemicals and other hazards, the papillary layer of dermis is responsible for nourishing epidermis. The functions of reticular layer of dermis include restricting the spread of pathogens into epidermis. It also helps in detection of touch, pain, pressure and vibration, through sensory receptors.(Lapres, 2009) Accessory structures Within accessory structures of the integumentary system, the hair follicles are responsible for hair production to protect the skull. The hair produced also provides sensitive touch sensation over surface of the body. Exocrine glands, within accessory st ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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