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The integumentary - Research Paper Example

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Mrs Florence Lee (94 yrs old) is a resident of the Jasmine Waters Retirement Village. She has recently moved from the self care facility to the nursing home facility due to developing dementia and increased care needs. Florence has led an active life, surfing in her youth and enjoying lawn bowls until her mid 80’s…
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The integumentary
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Download file to see previous pages She is also forgetting to wash her hands after toileting. Her skin has become very dry, pale and thin, tearing easily even when she simply scratches an itch. Q 1. Identify a specific cell from the integumentary system (1 cell only for each), involved in a) protection – SQUAMOUS CELL of the skin appears thin and flat; this is very important in protecting the entire body against damage brought about by cuts, bumps, spills of acids and bases, and damage due to ultraviolet radiation (Marieb, 2008). b) sensation – CUTANEOUS SENSORY RECEPTOR is another cell which can appear as specialized neurons, dendritic nerve endings, or specialized epithelial cell connected with sensory nerve endings; this is particularly responsible for the sensation of skin (Seeley, 2008). c) secretion – CUBOIDAL CELLS of sebaceous gland exit as single layer with polygon-shaped cells; it appears square-like in structure with a central round nucleus found in most glands of the human body (Tortora & Derrickson, 2007). Describe how each of these cells is designed for the function it carries out. Squamous cells are designed to be flat and thin to easily cover the outer part of the skin and facilitate the process of diffusion of substances effectively and more rapidly, in or out of the cells. Cutaneous skin receptors on the other hand, appear elongated, mesh-like and inter-networking with one another; this type of design is intended for fast conduct and transmission of impulses or electrical conductivity. Lastly, the cuboidal cells have box-like feature which is designed to permit fluid-holding capacity; allowing cells to secrete substances.. Q2. How does skin structure and function change with age and lifestyle factors? Make reference to the case study and the cells and functions you have discussed in Question 1. Skin, the largest organ and the most visible in the body, also undergoes aging process that shows multiple clinical manifestations and concerns. Organ aging and failure, become evident if and when the skin is affected. Skin deterioration is the outward evidence of faltering physiology. Although in the healthy aged population, expected changes occur, and sometimes lead to problems. Most of the skin changes that are linked with aging are caused by intrinsic aging rather than lifestyle factor or photo damage (Shekar, Luciano, Duffy and Martin, 2005; p. 125-1119).Cellular damage due to intrinsic factors are not fully understood, however, the stress of free radicals derived from reactive oxygen species that resulted from oxidative metabolism may lead to mutation of DNA, oxidation of proteins due to oxidation of membrane lipids, reduced function, and resulting in the abnormal trans-membrane impulse transmission and reduced transport efficiency. The moment repair is incomplete, damage over time can result to to abnormal structure and function.(Tortora & Derrickson, 2007). The ultraviolet exposure will also speed up chronological skin changes, and as age increase the impact of photo aging heightens (Seeley, 2008). Q3. Florence has expressed discomfort with hot weather. Explain how her skin changes may be contributing to this? Normally, occupation, lifestyle, and health associated decisions frequently determine the appearance of skin. Smoking, weight loss, lack of exercise, inadequate nutrition, stress and lack of sleep, exposure to cold weather, are common contributors to unhealthy skin. For elderly people, there are major changes in the structures ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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