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Pathophysiology of the Nervous System - Essay Example

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The Nervous System Introduction This essay will discuss an incident which starts off with a call with our paramedic unit at about 11:30 for assistance on a 72-year old female who is living with her husband. The husband expressed that he called the ambulance because his wife was starting to turn the gas on and off and insisting that she needed to sit in front of it in order to keep warm…
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Pathophysiology of the Nervous System

Download file to see previous pages... Based on the situation, she may be suffering from the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease and manifesting pre-dementia symptoms. The patient is manifesting agitation and memory gaps, and other symptoms which signal a neurological affectation. This essay shall conduct a review of the patient case, including specific pathophysiology and paramedic interventions with their corresponding rationale. Issues which will be discussed would include: causes of the symptoms, possible diagnosis, implications, and rationale of emergency management interventions. Adequate support from literature shall be established for this study, specifically the implemented interventions. Issues which specifically relate to her senility or her memory gaps, her safety, as well as her agitation will be specifically addressed in this study. These issues have been chosen because they are the issues which have the most impact on the patient’s health and the quality of her life. These issues also pose a danger to her safety in general. Differential diagnosis Based on an assessment of the case, symptoms of the patient include: memory gaps, pallor, distress, agitation, inattentiveness, mumbling to herself, feeling cold, unawareness of surroundings, failure to recognize faces and family members, and limited mobility. Based on my initial observation of symptoms, in descending order of possibility, the patient’s disease may be: Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, and Depression causing pseudo-dementia. The patient shall have to undergo various diagnostic tests, including X-rays, blood work, MRI or CT scans, and ECG tests, as well as the most accurate patient and family history, in order to determine the most possible diagnosis. An analysis of the results of the test and the patient’s history shall help in the establishment of the patient’s diagnosis. Differential diagnosis: Potential Alzheimer’s disease caused by reduced synthesis of neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease: Based on the symptoms manifested by the patient, she may be suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. The cause of Alzheimer’s disease is generally unknown, but initial damage includes the loss of neurons and synapses in the cerebral cortex as well as some areas of the subcortical region (Desikan, et.al., 2009). Such loss causes atrophy in these affected areas, including significant degeneration in the temporal and parietal lobe, as well as the cingulated gyrus (Desikan, et.al., 2009). Significant reduction in the size of specific regions of the brain would manifest as the disease progresses. In MRI reports, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are visible for Alzheimer’s disease patients, with dense features, as well as insoluble deposits of amyloid-beta peptide and cellular material surrounding the neurons (Tiraboschi, et.al., 2004). These tangles appear as aggregations of protein tau which usually accumulates inside the cells (Tiraboschi, et.al., 2004). These plaques are common among older adults, but are even more numerous among Alzheimer’s disease patients. The exact link between the accumulation of beta amyloid and the manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease symptoms has yet to be established (Van Broeck, et.al., 2007). The amyloid theory refers to the aggregation of beta amyloid peptides which often leads to neuron degeneration (Van Broeck, et.a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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