This research is being carried out to evaluate and discuss hypoglycemia, hypotension, and stroke including their pathophysiology pre-hospital management and medication, complications that may arise and current research and knowledge gaps…
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This paper outlines three differential diagnoses for a case, their respective pathophysiology and current management practices for those diagnoses. The case diagnosed in this paper is about a 62-year-old man who collapsed at a shopping center at about 10:30 am after feeling extremely dizzy. The man who is also living alone had experienced an episode of falling from stairs eight months ago without any major injury. Although the man is awake and sitting on the ground, he shows signs of drowsiness and disoriented and has difficulty in talking. The man insists on going home even though his eyes suddenly move upwards and in a few seconds he begins a seizure. The key symptoms, in this case, are drowsiness, difficulty in talking, dizziness, difficulty in talking and seizure. The history such as episodes of falling, age, time of the incident and the fact he lives alone are also crucial and important information in obtaining accurate differential diagnoses. The brain metabolism relies primarily on glucose to supply the energy necessary for metabolism. When levels in blood drop below certain levels normally 0.55nm, subtle reduction in the mental effects of the brain occurs and results in the impairment of judgment resulting in symptoms like seizures. Small quantities of glucose can be derived from the stored glycogen within the astrocytes; however, a brain is dependent to the greater extent on the continual supply of glucose from the blood. Glucose from the blood diffuse into the interstitial cells, then into the central nervous system (CNS) and finally into the neurons. Within the CNS, energy is required for synthesis of signals and conveyance of information to the muscles. This explains the emergence of symptoms such as drowsiness, difficulty in talking, dizziness, and seizure. Generally lack of enough glucose supply to the brain would result in confusion and in severe cases, it is preceded with dizziness and drowsiness, seizure and finally, the patient can go into a coma.
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