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Mental disorders - Research Paper Example

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Human mind is an extremely complex organ and has uncountable relays and neuron transmitters that help in normal perception for any individual. Any slight problem in this relay system can affect health and normal activity…
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Mental disorders
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Download file to see previous pages Human mind is an extremely complex organ and has uncountable relays and neuron transmitters that help in normal perception for any individual. Any slight problem in this relay system can affect health and normal activity. The patient might present with severe pain in emergency room but detail assessment would rule out any possible medical condition associated with it. Such patients have to suffer a lot since most of the doctors consider somatoform disorder as they last diagnosis and patient has to undergo painful procedure of repeated tests and takes various medications for pain. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classifies somatoform disorder into various types. They include somatization disorder, conversion disorder, pain disorder, hypochondriasis, and body dysmorphic disorder. It is indeed a challenge for any physician to differentiate them from related medical conditions clinically because they all present in a different manner clinically. Some of the terms such as somatization are proper diagnostic terms that are used specifically for this disorder whereas pain and conversion disorders are the commonly used terms that are manifest various types of anxiety and depression. There are various patho-physiological theories given for this disease. It might actually be the hypersensitivity of the normal physiological sensations that are usually inhibited through some neurons. Another theory suggests the role of autonomic nervous system in this disorder. It implies that autonomic nervous system send message of pain to peripheral nerves instead of transmission of that message to brain. This pain would be without any pathological cause apparently and hence would be terms as somatoform disorder. Due to increase autonomic stimulation, there will be increase in acitivity of other related systems that can cause increase pain perception such as causing tachycardia and hyper motility of gut. Several studies have also showed that some of the brain part is actually reduced in patients with this disorder which suggest some biological role as well. Amygdala size is especially considerably reduced which does show that some of this part is indeed involved and there is some solid biological basis for this disorder (Atmaca M 2011). The diagnosis of this disease can be made after proper ruling out all other related clinical conditions. It is very important to do this because only the treatment options for all these diseases are very different and specific medication would depend upon specific diagnosis. To begin with, there should be routine lab tests like blood Cp should be done. Megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B 12 deficiency causes also cause demyelization of spinal nerves and hence it is important to rule that out before going into further investigations. Hyperthyroidism also causes tachycardia and diarrhea so thyroid function tests which include thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroxin should be done. Levels of homovannillic acid (HVA), Vanillymandelic acid (VMA) and metanephrines and nor epinephrine plus epinephrine should be done with urine sample to rule out pheochromocytoma. There needs to be detail examination of blood sample to rule out alcoholism. Urine drug screening is also important because just like all the other differential diagnosis mentioned, they give a picture similar to Somatoform disorder. After doing all these investigations and ruling out all the possible biological causes for the symptoms, psychological assessment of the patient needs to be done in detail. That includes taking detailed history of all the past events in his life. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has proved to be an important ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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