Pathophysiology of the Nervous System Insert name (s) Course Pathophysiology of the Nervous System Introduction The patient described in case scenario 1 is a 24year old male who is likely to be suffering from nervous system disorder…
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Some nervous system disorders are considered to be degenerative because they progress slowly and result in the gradual loss of nervous functions while others are regarded as acute as they occur suddenly occur. There are a number of possible causes of acute nervous system disorders some of which include mental health problems, exposure to toxins, infections, injuries particularly to the spinal cord and head and congenital problems. As witnessed in the patient, nervous system problems can be manifested through a number of signs and symptoms such as numbness of the body, reduced level of consciousness, inability to walk or stand and seizures. Most of these symptoms are consistent with Dystonic reactions which are a disorder of the nervous system that results to twisting and abnormal posture as a result of abnormal contractions of the muscles (Okun, M.S. 2002, p.247). Consequently the likely diagnosis of the condition is dystonic reaction due to medications. This is particularly because most of the symptoms observed in the patient such as abnormal postures, twisting rolling back his eyes with a fixed gaze are consistent with dystonic reaction to some of the common pharmaceutical drugs such as neuroleptics. This paper uses the above case analysis to discuss the signs, differential diagnosis and pathophysiology of the case. Additionally the paper also critically analyzes the current management practices of the condition as well as presents a critique of some of the evidence supporting these management practices. Differential diagnosis The potential diagnosis of the case is dystonic reaction due to medications. Studies have found that the condition is mostly brought about as a result of adverse reactions to neuropleptics drugs. There is however a number of other disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the condition witnessed in the case. Misdiagnosis of the condition may occur because there are a number of other organic related disorders which often result in the development of similar symptoms. Generally there are a number of other neurological disorders that may potentially cause similar symptoms as that of dystonic reaction. For example, seizures and intracranial pressure may also result in similar presenting symptoms such as, the patient’s mouth being open and tight facial muscles (McCormick and Manoguerra, 1999, p.304). Although both conditions can cause nervous system related complications, most of the symptoms such as eyes rolling back with a fixed gaze among other symptoms are only consistent with the potential dystonic reaction. For example the fact that the patient was lying on the floor with arms curled tightly towards his chest was a likely suggestion that he was suffering from a cardiac arrest. Similarly the other symptoms like rolling eyes with a fixed gaze as well as open mouth and tight facial muscles may all be a likely suggestion of seizure and reduced consciousness as commonly seen in patients suffering from the other related nervous system disorders. The primary causes nervous system disorders such as dystonic reactions and seizures include genetic causes, reaction to certain pharmaceutical drugs, poisoning and infections. Generally dystonic reactions due to medications refer to the adverse effects that occur immediately after initiating neuroleptic drug therapy. These reactions may
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.......................................................................... 2 II. Pathophysiology and pathology................................................................................... 4 A. Smoking..................................................
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