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Pathophysiology of the Nervous System - Essay Example

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The case emerges from a situation when a 78- year old male starts behaving abnormally in a local restaurant and is reported as being in a highly agitated condition. He is seen pacing up and down, bearing a restless and agitated demeanor, and seems to be unable to sit still…
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Pathophysiology of the Nervous System
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Download file to see previous pages The patient is named Jack. He gives an impression of a disorientated person and from his behavior, it is clear that he does not want anybody to touch him. Still, Jack has certain degree of self-awareness, which is visible in the fact that he somewhat recognizes that the medical practitioner was there to help him. But he is found not to be able to answer the questions put to him coherently. He is speaking in a stream of words and is referring to the world as screwed up. He suddenly stops talking and goes quite while standing unsteadily on his feet. He also states that he desperately wants to call his sister. As the situation suggests, he may be suffering from Sepsis, or Thyrotixicosis. The patient is displaying symptoms of a neurological disorder. This paper will be carrying out a diagnosis review of the patient focusing on the pathophysiology of the condition involved. It will also provide a detailed justification for the diagnosis. Topics under consideration are the symptoms, their causes, the potential consequences of the condition, and also the short-term and long-term medical intervention strategies. The age of Jack, the medication that he is under, his health history, the implications of this newly displayed condition, his possibility of recouping normalcy and the specific medical interventions required will be elaborately dealt with in this paper.
While some primary scrutinizing was being done to observe Jack's vital signs, it became perceivable that his agitated state was getting more unmanageable. This being the scenario, this writer will provide a differential diagnosis on the health status of the nervous system of the given person, approaching the problem from a pathophysiological point of view. It is clear that the patient is agitated, but it is not yet the stage of diagnosis to suggest that what the patient exhibit is rthe sign of an organic condition. Mohr et al. (2005) have pointed out that the key symptoms of agitation are, “motor restlessness, increased responsiveness to external or internal stimuli, irritability, [and] inappropriate and usually purposeless verbal and motor activity” (p.327). The patient under scrutiny is displaying all these symptoms. The major medical causes of agitation are “thyrotoxicosis, encephalitis, meningitis, Sepsis, brain trauma, dementia, delirium, [and] seizure disorders” (Ng. et al., 2010, p.47). Another category of causes include “intoxication (alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine), [and] alcohol withdrawal” (Ng. et al., 2010, p.47). Agitation is a condition defined from the view-point of pathophysiology as “a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in a number of different clinical conditions, usually presenting a fluctuating course” (Lindenmayer, 2000, p.5). The causative pathophysiological elements are a brain dynamics emerging out of “dysregulations of dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and GABAergic systems” (Lindenmayer, 2000. P.5). In other words, agitation could be pathophysiologically an expression of “specific neurotransmitter dysregulations” (Allen, 2002, p.119). Differential diagnosis In order to carry out a differential diagnosis, the practitioner needs to collect information on the history of the patient, to examine and talk to the patient to take note of the “vital signs” (Binder and McNiel, 1999, p.1553), and undertake a “physical examination and laboratory work” (Binder and McNiel, 1999, p.1553). Carrying out an accurate diagnosis of agitation is a difficult venture (Cardinal and Bullmore, 2011, p.151). This is especially the case when the patient is unable to “ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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