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Pathophysiology and pharmacology - Assignment Example

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Its causative agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites or chemicals. Inhalation exposes the respiratory airways and…
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Pathophysiology and pharmacology
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Pathophysiology and pharmacology

Download file to see previous pages... Impairment of these mechanisms results in pneumonia. It may also occur when the resistance of the host is lowered.
Congestive Heart Failure arises when the heart is unable to circulate enough blood to meet the body’s metabolic demands. Heart failure is caused by damage or overloading of the myocardium (Hosenpud & Greenberg, 1994). It is, therefore, associated with systolic or diastolic overloading and with myocardial weakness. Various conditions cause heart failure. Such conditions include hypertension, myocardial infarction, and amyloidosis. Overtime physiologic stress on the myocardium causes the contractility of the muscle to reduce and cardiac output declines. However, venous input to the ventricle remains constant or increases and is responsible for cardiac overload. There is also increased heart rate, hypertrophy and enlargement of the ventricles.
Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease that infects one-third of the world population. It is often fatal killing about three million people yearly. It usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmitted by inhalation of infective droplets and Mycobacterium bovis transmitted by milk from infected cows. The primary phase of M. tuberculosis infection starts with inhalation in the lower segment and middle lobes of the lung (DYER, 2010). Alveolar macrophages then phagocytize the mycobacterium and transported it to hilar lymph nodes. However, naïve macrophages are unable to kill the Mycobacterium that lyses the cell upon multiplication. Other macrophages are infected, and dissemination through the blood to other parts of the body occurs. The active disease years later, Reactivation TB, results from the proliferation of dormant Mycobacterium seeded during the primary phase.
Peptic ulcer disease is the breach of the gastrointestinal tract mucosal layer. There are two forms of PUD; ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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