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Impairment of these mechanisms results in pneumonia. It may also occur when the resistance of the host is lowered.
Congestive Heart Failure arises when the heart is unable to circulate enough blood to meet the body’s metabolic demands. Heart failure is caused by damage or overloading of the myocardium (Hosenpud & Greenberg, 1994). It is, therefore, associated with systolic or diastolic overloading and with myocardial weakness. Various conditions cause heart failure. Such conditions include hypertension, myocardial infarction, and amyloidosis. Overtime physiologic stress on the myocardium causes the contractility of the muscle to reduce and cardiac output declines. However, venous input to the ventricle remains constant or increases and is responsible for cardiac overload. There is also increased heart rate, hypertrophy and enlargement of the ventricles.
Tuberculosis is a highly infectious disease that infects one-third of the world population. It is often fatal killing about three million people yearly. It usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmitted by inhalation of infective droplets and Mycobacterium bovis transmitted by milk from infected cows. The primary phase of M. tuberculosis infection starts with inhalation in the lower segment and middle lobes of the lung (DYER, 2010). Alveolar macrophages then phagocytize the mycobacterium and transported it to hilar lymph nodes. However, naïve macrophages are unable to kill the Mycobacterium that lyses the cell upon multiplication. Other macrophages are infected, and dissemination through the blood to other parts of the body occurs. The active disease years later, Reactivation TB, results from the proliferation of dormant Mycobacterium seeded during the primary phase.
Peptic ulcer disease is the breach of the gastrointestinal tract mucosal layer. There are two forms of PUD;
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The drug goes through a lengthy process to get to the sites. They have to be dissolved, absorbed and metabolized based on their nature. Drugs move from the mouth where it mixes with saliva, then through the esophagus, to the stomach then finally reaches the small intestines.
Medication administration process includes getting medical orders, writing medical orders on the (MAR) medical administration record, comparing the medical orders with the ones on the MAR to ensure they are correct, delivering and administering the medication to the patients, monitoring the patient’s progress and recording, storing and getting rid of expired, unused and contaminated medication.
What does each category mean in terms of potential fetal risks? In your response please discuss why medications are categorized as they are, and the evidence upon which the classifications are made for each drug. Answer Pregnancy is an exceptional physiological condition where drug medicine presents a unique concern on the grounds that the physiology of pregnancy influences the pharmacokinetics of meds utilized and certain prescriptions can achieve the baby reason to hurt.
This chapter then further discusses means of controlling this sense of loss.
Chapter 21 talks about fluid and electrolyte alterations. The chapter talks about fluid requirements, fluid therapy, and electrolytes. It also talks about acid-base imbalances in the
Tyrosine kinases are the enzymes that catalyze the movement of ɣ phosphate group to the target protein from the ATP molecules. Tyrosine kinase molecules act as the membrane surface protein for the transduction of signals to the cytoplasm. Binding
For example, it inhibits the bioavailability of orally administered drugs by transporting them back into the intestinal lumen (Finch & Pillans, 2014). In humans, P-gp is found in abundance in the proximal renal tubules, the apical membrane of mucosal cells of the
Investigating possible interactions between JP234 and warfarin is the key idea behind this study. The administration of JP234, an oral antiarrhythmic agent, is utilized in heart rate control in atrial fibrillation. The
The administration of the drug among patients with cardiac arrhythmias has proved to be effective in prevention of arterial fibrillation. The effect of the new drug on the action of warfarin will be investigated in 20 healthy volunteers. The study type is
Medications such as acetazolamide and Crixivan can induce the formation of kidney stones (Editore, 2014). The patient’s diet and fluid consumption can help analyze the composition of the calculi by determining the nutritional values and amount or frequency
2014). A stroke can use neurologic damage, disability or death depending on the duration of focal disturbance of cerebral blood. Transient ischemic attacks intensify the risk of a subsequent stroke.
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