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Clinical science - Essay Example

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Clinical Science Your Name University Number and Name of Course (e.g., June 1, 2012) Clinical Science Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Acute Inflammation Caused by Bacterial Infections An acute inflammatory response is the body’s initial and immediate response to an injury or an infection (Kumar et al…
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Download file to see previous pages In case of bacterial infections, acute inflammation is induced by exotoxins and endotoxins associated with the bacteria (Underwood 2004). The inflammatory response is activated by the body to clear the bacterial pathogen and to repair damages caused by the pathogen (Kumar et al. 2004). Common types of acute inflammations associated with bacterial infections include meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), Pneumonia (inflammation in lungs), pleurisy (inflammation of the pleura), pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardium), colitis (inflammation of the colon), cholecystisis (inflammation of the gall bladder), cystisis (inflammation of the urinary bladder), osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone), cellulitis (inflammation of the subcutaneous tissues), and arthritis (inflammation of the joints) (Sen et al. 2010). Infection along with systemic inflammation results in sepsis, which has a very frequent rate of incidence, with more than 750,000 cases reported in 1995 in the US alone (Kumar et al. 2004). ...
2011). Examples of acute inflammation include boils and abscesses, pneumonia, middle ear infections, and meningitis, and are usually caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus (MacPherson & Austyn 2012). Acute inflammation caused by bacterial infection is typified by local pain, vasodilation, and oedema, apart from systemic symptoms such as anorexia and fever (MacPherson & Austyn 2012). It is characterised by a vascular phase and a cellular phase (Porth 2010). In the vascular phase, vasoconstriction occurs momentarily, followed by rapid vasodilation at the site of infection (Porth 2010). Increased redness and heat is felt at the site of vasodilation due to increased blood flow in the capillaries. Vascular permeability is also increased resulting in the release of exudate into the extravascular spaces (Porth 2010). The exudate is protein-rich and the loss of this protein rich fluid from the capillaries causes a reduction in the osmotic pressure within the capillaries. It is also accompanied with an increase in the osmotic pressure of the interstitial space. This sequence of events clubbed with an increase in capillary pressure causes an outpouring of fluid into the tissue space. This results in swelling, impaired function and pain at the site of infection. The cellular phase of acute inflammatory response is initiated when inflammatory mediators are released by the injured or infected cells (Prescott 2002). These mediators activate the endothelium of surrounding capillaries. Capillaries have a group of cell adhesion molecules called selectins in their walls. These selectins, specifically P- and E- selectins attract neutrophils towards the endothelium. As these neutrophils approach the endothelium, inflammatory ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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