Download file to see previous pages...
e, transfusion strategy is applied to prevent the recurrence, or the first occurrence, of stroke which is a major crisis in SCD, and to manage pulmonary hypertension and other sources of morbidity and mortality. Exchange transfusions are used to reduce the sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS) levels during crisis. Several situations also exist wherein the indication for red cell transfusion is controversial, uncertain, or downright injudicious. Many side effects of transfusion have been identified and methods to overcome them have been developed. Iron overload (remedy: iron chelation), and alloimmunisation (remedy: phenotypical matching of transfused blood) are two notable examples. Association of haemoglobinopathies and neurologic sequelae after transfusion is also known. At the present time, bone marrow transplant is the only curative procedure available for both SCD and β-thalassaemia major. Potential therapies involving stem cell transplantation and gene techniques are being vigorously researched.
A detailed discussion of the current status of clinical management strategies as applied to inherited haemoglobin-related diseases in particular, sickle cell disease and the thalassaemias, is presented in this paper.
Anaemia is a syndrome characterised by a lack of healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin deficiency in the red blood cells, resulting in inadequate oxygen supply to the tissues. The condition can be temporary, long-term or chronic, and of mild to severe intensity. There are many forms and causes of anaemia. Normal blood consists of three types of blood cells: white blood cells (leucocytes), platelets and red blood cells (erythrocytes). The first generation of erythrocyte precursors in the developing foetus are produced in the yolk sac. They are carried to the developing liver by the blood where they form mature red blood cells that are required to meet the metabolic needs of the foetus. Until the 18th week of gestation, erythrocytes are produced only by liver
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Vichinsky reported that acute and painful episodes, which can last from two to seven days, are the most common reason for SCD patients to seek emergent medical care. The believes that this population had an opioid addiction acts as a major barrier preventing patients from receiving effective pain management during acute pain episodes.
This paper take a look at some of the various ways that the disease affects the lives of people and how this disease can be controlled and managed without causing death. A series of articles and books have been used here as the main sources for getting the useful information used here.
Sickle cell affects red blood cells which contain haemoglobin and according to Anon (2009) about 250,000 people are carriers of sickle cell genes. Sickle cell disease also means that if both parents are carriers, then it is more likely for the children to develop either sickle cell disease or to be a carrier of the disease.
However, the carriers will have the potential to pass on the affected gene to their offspring.
The chances of my friend being a carrier are one out of four. Both her grandparents were carrier of mutated CFTR as they were healthy and one of their progeny (uncle) had cystic fibrosis.
This process causes damage to the red blood cell membrane and sometimes the red blood cells get attached in blood vessels. This attachment or adherence of the red blood cells deprives the tissues of oxygen causing ischemia and infarction.The disease is chronic with periodic painful attacks,damage of internal organs with complications of strokes and subsequent shortened lifespan.The average life span of sickle cell patients is just 40 years.
ures like premature destruction of red blood cells, elevated erythropoietin levels and increased erythropoietin levels in the marrow and other sites to compensate for the loss of red cells and accumulation of the products of hemoglobin catabolism due to increased rate of red
ific name by which red blood cell are known is “erythrocyte,” meaning “hollow red cell.” Red blood cells attains the red color from hemoglobin, which constitute around 97% of the dry weight of red blood cells, and about 35% of the total weight, including water.