Nobody downloaded yet

Gout as a Metabolic Disorder - Research Paper Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Gout is a metabolic disorder classically represented as acute inflammatory monarthritis (Rott & Agudelo, 2003); that is known to be initiated by the crystallization of uric acid (UA) within the joints. Uric acid is the end product of metabolism of purine. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97% of users find it useful
Gout as a Metabolic Disorder
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Gout as a Metabolic Disorder"

Download file to see previous pages When urates in the blood reach the physiological saturation levels, they crystallize to form monosodium urate (MSU) and gradually accumulate in tissues. This leads to development of asymptomatic hyperuricemia which results into gout (Luk & Simkin, 2005). The clinical manifestations of gout include acute gouty arthritis, deposition of MSU crystals in soft tissues leading to formation of ‘tophi’, urate urolithiasis along with rare incidences of nephropathy. The disease develops in four stages; an asymptomatic hyperuricemia, acute gout with intermittent flares, the intercritical period, and chronic gout (Sundram, 2010). The prevalence of gout have been on a rise during the last few decades chiefly due to changes in life style patterns and increased longevity. In US prevalence has been estimated to be 5.1 million during the period spanning 1988-1994 by the third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III). 5.2 cases per 1000 have been reported by the US managed care database during the year 1999 compared to 2.9 cases in 1990. The disease prevalence rates reportedly are higher in older men than those of rheumatoid arthritis. Incidences of gout have also escalated during the last two decades with annual levels reported by Rochester Epidemiology Project to be twice as high as those reported two decades earlier for primary gout. Higher incidences of disease are reported in men than in women with increased incidences reported with advancing age in both sexes (Weaver, 2008). Despite high prevalence and severe burden of the disease, frequent mismanagement of the disease leads to avoidable incidences of morbidities and mortality (Luk & Simkin, 2005). The current report aims to present an in depth exploration of the risk factors, pathogenesis and treatment modalities of gout. RISK FACTORS Sex Men have a higher level of serum urate rendering them significantly more vulnerable to gout with higher probability of development of gout in men below the age of 30 compared to women of comparable age. The risk of gout development in men peaks in the age range of 75-84 years, while in women the risks are higher during post menopausal phase. After the age of 60, both men and women are equally vulnerable to the disease (Rott & Agudelo, 2003). Diuretics Diuretic intake is a major cause of hyperuricemia since it causes significant enhancement of reabsorption of uric acid in kidney (Rott & Agudelo, 2003). Several other medications such as low dose aspirin, cyclosporine (increases tubular reabsorption of urate), pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and niacin also lead to hyperuricemia (Weaver, 2008). Comorbidities Individuals with hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, neuropathy, hyperlipidemia, chronic kidney diseases and metabolic syndrome are highly vulnerable to gout (Rott & Agudelo, 2003). Lead exposure has also been found to be associated with gout (Sundram, 2010). Poor urate clearance may render a hemodialysis patient vulnerable to urate deposition and gout. Obesity Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) in the range of 21-22 have been reported to be at much lower risk of developing gout compared to individuals with higher BMI. Alevel of 35 raise the risk three fold. Obesity has been found to be associated with enhance urate synthesis and lower excretion of urate from the kidneys; thereby leading to raised serum urate levels (Weaver, 2008). Dietary Habits A diet rich in meat such as red meat, organ meat; and sea food has been associated with higher vulnerabilities to gout. The same has also been reported for alcohol consumption; especially beer (Choi et al. 2004). On the contrary, purine rich vegetables exhibit no correlation with gout development and dairy products lower the risk marginally (Weaver, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Gout as a Metabolic Disorder Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved de https://studentshare.org/biology/1392184-gout
(Gout As a Metabolic Disorder Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words)
“Gout As a Metabolic Disorder Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1392184-gout.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
utromp added comment 5 months ago
Student rated this paper as
The topic of "Gout as a Metabolic Disorder" is quite often seen among the tasks in university. Still, this sample opens a fresh perspective of seeing the problem. I’ll use the style for my own paper.
Gout and Hyperuricemia

The author states that overproduction of uric acid leads to increased phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase activity and deficiency of hypoxanthine‐guanine phosphoribosyl transferase  (HGPRT ), which is responsible for the conversion of hypoxanthine to ionsinic acid and guanine to guanylic acid.

6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Metabolic Syndrome
But these metabolic disorders were not related to the abnormalities of the cardiovascular system at that time. Gerald Phillips later on found out that the aspects of ageing, obesity, and diabetes were directly related to heart diseases. It was then in 1988 that Reaven found out a connection between hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and the cardiovascular diseases.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Metabolic Syndrom
The author states that metabolic syndrome refers to a group of risk factors that increases an individual’s risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and other health perils that temper with a person’s normal life. Age and genetic factors are some of the uncontrollable causes of metabolic syndrome.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Bipolar Disorder
When an individual suffers from bipolar disorder, they experience changes in their mood that can be either short and abrupt, happening without warning, or else can last for weeks at a time. Believed to be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain, bipolar disorder affects the way that an individual feels and acts, often despite the experiences that they are going through in life.
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
Bipolar disorder
Knowing that we are not mentally disordered Mental disorders manifests in people’s behavior and have specific symptoms. The signs are however numerous and diversified from one type of disorder to another and their total absence indicates that a person is not mentally disordered.
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Schizoaffective disorder
The understanding of schizoaffective disorder is very important given the increasing prevalence of the disease among adults and its significant effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral patterns of the people affected. Physicians therefore need to perfect their ability to diagnose and distinguish schizoaffective disorder from affective/mood disorder and schizophrenia so as to timely identify the best possible type of intervention for a particular patient.
12 Pages(3000 words)Research Paper
Metabolic and physiological adaptations to renal failure
If ion concentrations in the surrounding fluid are high, water from cells will go extracellularly, and the cells will shrink. In contrast, if they are low compared to that within cells, then water will rush intracellularly, leading to cell rupture. In addition, they have less barrier against toxins present in its surroundings, thus making them more susceptible to the adverse effects of harmful substances present in the body.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Hoarding Disorder
A research of college students in the United States revealed estimates of between 2% and 4% in 2012. Information extracted from patients with OCD (Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders) showed
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
Bipolar Disorder
Neuroimaging techniques have somehow proven that the tendency to develop bipolar disorder can be predicted even in childhood. Moreover, bipolar disorder is also suspected as a multi-systemic inflammatory disease that may actually trigger the same pathways as cardiovascular
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
Bipolar Disorder
From the above study thus, it can be concluded that the severity of the bipolar disorder depends of the type of the disorder affecting an individual. While the symptoms, diagnosis and the treatments are similar to great extents in case of bipolar I and bipolar II, yet the effects of the type II disorder have proved to be milder.
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Gout as a Metabolic Disorder for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us