Bacteria menningitis haemophilus influenza - Essay Example

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Name: Task: Tutor: Date: Bacteria Meningitis Haemophilus Influenza This bacterial infection engulfs the meninges that cover the brain cortex and the spinal cord. It occurs in humans only. The Haemophilus influenza bacterium causes the Haemophilus influenza meningitis…
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Bacteria menningitis haemophilus influenza
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Download file to see previous pages It is responsible for lower respiratory tract infections in children. They are opportunistic pathogens and only become pronounced on exposure of the body to viral infections, immune dysfunction, and chronic inflammation. They stick to the cells by use of adhesions such as TAA. It causes pneumonia, bacteremia, and acute bacterial meningitis. It also causes infectious arthritis, osteomyelitis, epiglottitis, and cellulitis. Vaccination is available against the bacteria using their conjugates. However, non-encapsulated strains do not get affected and cause otitis media (ear infection) and conjunctivitis. Causative Agent The Haemophilus influenza meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenza type b bacteria. The bacteria are in the kingdom of bacteria; phylum is proteobacteria; the class is gamma proteobacteria; the order is pasteurellales; the family is pasteurellaceae; the genus is haemophilus and the species is Haemophilus influenza. It is a rod shaped gram-negative bacteria coccobacillus bacterium (Evans and Brachman 14). It possesses the aerobic nature but can also grow as a facultative anaerobe. It has two serotypes; the encapsulated and the non-encapsulated strains. The encapsulated strains were classified into H. Influenza: a (Hia), b (Hib), c (Hic), d (Hid), e (Hie), and f (Hif). This classification is based on the capsular antigens present. The non-encapsulated are non-typable due to the lack of the capsular serotype. They produce inflammatory responses and remain less invasive. The inflammation of the meningeal membranes, which covers the brain, causes the symptoms of meningitis. This makes them resistant to the H. influenza vaccine that is induced to vaccinate against the bacteria. This leads to conditions like pneumonia and otitis media often seen in children, which are the complications, associated with meningitis. H. influenzae, in a Gram stain of a sputum sample, appear as Gram-negative coccobacilli H. Influenzae on an agar plate. Pathogenesis The pathogenesis of the bacteria is not well defined. However, the main factor to its pathogenesis is the type b polysaccharide capsule. This capsule harbors the antigen responsible for the effects associated with the disease. The encapsulated bacteria can penetrate the surfaces of the epithelium and get into the blood capillaries without hindrance. The antigens present on the capsule allow for its direct penetration. The capsule enclosure makes the bacteria resist phagocytosis by the phagocytes and, thus, its infiltration into the inside. The complement cascade of the host immune system cannot act on the bacteria, thus, making it get invasive. The non-encapsulated strain is lowly invasive compared to the encapsulated. This is because they lack the capsule, hence, the lack of antigens responsible for infiltrating the bilayer. However, they can induce the inflammatory response of different cells that later cause disease. This later leads to the symptoms associated with the disease. It is also abundantly evident after an infection of the upper respiratory region. The infection multiplies by spreading from the respiratory tract and then to the bloodstream and later spreads to the meninges. At the meninges, the pathogen induces inflammation and the complement activation. This inflammation around the meninges causes the meningitis associated with the disease. This affects nerve impulse transmission and, thus, causes illness or later death. The bacterium also produces beta lactamases, to aid in its resistance ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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