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Breast Cancer - Essay Example

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The researcher of this paper throws light on breast cancer as one of the most significant cancers among the middle-aged women all over the world. Furthermore, it is also a very common case of mortality amongst women in the western areas. …
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Breast Cancer
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Breast Cancer

Download file to see previous pages... This essay discusses that in England and Wales, an estimate of one in twelve women develops breast cancer in their total life span. In United States the incidence of breast cancer in the year 1994 was recorded as 1% and it has remained significantly unchanged over the past five decades. Breast cancer presents with various signs and symptoms and the tumor affects the healthy bodily functions along with the quality of life. This cancer has different diagnostic and therapeutic tools different current and the ongoing researches about the prevention and cure of breast cancer are also conspicuous. The most common site of the breast to be affected is the upper outer quadrant of the breast. The breast cancer manifests as a hard lump with or without retraction of the nipple. With the progression of the disease, the skin may appear as a characteristic peau d’orange. This feature appears as an orange like skin because of the cutaneous lymphatic edema. The sweat glands cause the inward movement of the skin because the skin is unable to swell any further due to the edema. A woman should notice some particular symptoms which should make her visit the GP. Changes in breast size or shape, changes in nipple, swellings in the axillary (armpit) region, dimpling appearance of the breast skin or an unexplained pain in any part of the breast. Ulcerations on the breasts or fixation of the breast tissue to the chest wall are important signs of breast cancer. Another manifestation of underlying breast carcinoma is Paget’s disease of the nipple. ...
Alcohol drinking should be restricted to only one small glass. Adding a healthy exercise regimen to the daily routine would also be good for the health of the women with breast cancer. However, strenuous exercises during the therapeutic course should be avoided and only exercises ranging for short time periods should be preferred. Strong sunlight should be handled carefully, with sun-blocks or covering the breasts properly with clothes as the treated areas can be easily sun burnt. The sexual relationships with partners can also be carried out as normally as before the occurrence of breast cancer (Pennery et al 2008). The risk factors for breast cancer are variable. Age is one of the most significant one. It is extremely rare below the age of 20 and mostly occurs above this age group. Women with a positive family history of breast cancer are also at higher risk as compared to others. Breast cancer is common in nulliparous women, women who had their child at an old age that is after 30 or 35 yrs, late beginning of menstrual cycle and early menopausal age. Excessive exposure to radiation is also an important risk factor for breast cancer (Williams et al 2008). Environmental pollutants like pesticide composites, polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT have been found to be significant in relation to the etiology of breast cancer. Other risk factors include shorter duration of breast feeding, prolonged estrogen replacement therapy, prolonged oral contraceptive use, low physical activity and any typical or atypical enlargement of the breast tissue (Russo & Russo2004). The diagnostic tools available to assess and confirm breast cancer include mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and needle ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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