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Breast cancer lab report - Essay Example

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Psychosocial Essay, Breast Cancer-Lab Report Word Count: 3,199 Introduction The descriptive narrative of an interviewed patient, Gillian, a 55years old White, British woman, shows the resolve and courage the lady has after being diagnosed for breast cancer a second time…
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Breast cancer lab report

Download file to see previous pages... Gillian is a modern technocrat as evidenced by her professional affiliation to the IT (Information Technology) industry. She has undergone a partial mastectomy (lobectomy) previously in an effort to get rid of the tumour in her left breast, with no need for chemotherapy being felt by the attending surgeon and physicians at that time. Naturally she had returned to her normal life activities thinking she had been cured once and for all. Her attitude towards the initial surgery is positive, as by her own admission. She declares that the minor scar and no indentation were immaterial cosmetically. But the recurrence of the problem, complicated by accompanying lymphoedema, the latter being a consistent but regular phenomenon after her first surgery, has got her in a mood bordering on desperation with chances of easily being susceptible to depression. The fresh diagnosis of DCIS (Ductal carcinoma in situ), with chances of malignancy and accompanying lymphoedema has Gillian worried about the sequel after the now recommended surgical removal of her left breast and the duration of chemotherapy she needs to endure. Chemotherapy for cancer is already associated with physical, cosmetic and other side effects which a person of Gillian’s education, experience and stature will not fail to realize. Gillian has already been treated with Tamoxifen and Arimidex (anastrozole), which are known to cause potent side effects. She is therefore in a despondent state and needs to be handled carefully by healthcare experts from the fields of oncology, surgery and psychotherapy as well. Anatomical and Physiological Aspects The human breasts technically known as mammae are accessory glands more developed in females, in males their presence being just rudimentary (Gray, 1918). The function of these accessory glands is to secrete milk for the infant which it does for approximately a year after birth. However lactation may cease altogether if breast feeding is discontinued by the mother (Blyth et al, 2004). During embryogenesis, mammae develop partly from the mesoderm as well as the ectoderm (Gray, 1918). The blood vessels and the connective tissue develop from the mesoderm while the ectoderm contributes to the cellular elements within. The initial rudimentary manifestation occurs as early as 3 months of age in the female of the human species and the glandular follicles and ducts develop subsequently, especially during hormonal influences at the onset of puberty. Full development of the follicles occurs only after a successful pregnancy during which the hormonal changes occurring inside the female body preparing it for nursing the infant during its first year of life. The anatomical location of the mammae is in the anterior thoracic region with bilateral symmetry, though the left breast is usually larger than the right one. Each mamma extends from the second rib to the sixth rib, from side of the sternum to the midaxillary line (Gray, 1918). Each breast lies within the superficial fascia and its shape and size is dependent upon genetic, racial, dietary factors as well as the age, parity and menopausal status of an individual (Standring, 2008). Its exact location is in the deep pectoral fascia overlying the pectoralis major and the serratus anterior muscles superiorly with the aponeurosis at the external oblique muscle (Standring, 2008). Loose connective tissue ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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