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A century and a half ago Rudolf Virchow’s seminal ideas linked inflammation with cancer; and opened avenues for comprehension of the scariest disease mankind continues to face. Virchow suggested the presence of “lymphoreticular infiltrate”, at the site of inflammation was indicative of cancer initiation. The researches in previous decade have offered support to the ideas of Virchow; that malignant tissues formed during cancers create an inflammatory microenvironment (Balkwill & Mantovani, 2001).
Breast cancers arise from the epidermal lining of the terminal duct lobular unit. Cancerous cells either remain confined to the terminal duct lobular unit and the draining duct; or proliferate beyond the basement membrane to the adjacent tissue. While the former is referred to as in situ or non-invasive; the latter is called invasive or infiltrating carcinomas. A misnomer used in the classification of invasive carcinomas was ductal and lobular carcinomas; where the two were believed to arise from ducts and lobules respectively. It is now understood that both of these types of breast cancer have origin in the lobule. The invasive breast cancers are now classified on the basis of specific cellular growth patterns and morphology of cells. Breast cancers with distinct features are called invasive cancers of special type; and the rest referred to as of no special type (figure 1) (Sainsbury et al., 2000).
Cancers of breasts are the most common affecting women, with 232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancers reported from USA alone (ACS, 2014). Survival rates for breast cancer for women in the age range of 50-69 years, for five years is estimated to be 80%, for younger women it is slightly lower (Coleman et al., 2004). It is the second most common cause of death in women (first in case of Hispanic women) in USA (CDC, 2013). 72-80% of the cases of breast cancer are those of Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). The
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Breast cancer is a major cause for morbidity and mortality of women worldwide. This is condition predominantly affecting women and especially women in western countries or nations that accepted modern lifestyle of living. It is found that modern ways of living and diet are one of the most important factors that increase the risk for breast cancer in countries with modern way of living.
Although there exists disparities among women from different ethnic, racial and cultural backgrounds, the developments in research of breast cancer offer a promising solution to all affected. It has been reported that in the year 2006 in U.S approximately 274,900 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed with 61,980 of these cases being in situ carcinomas and the rest (212,920) being malignant breast cancers.
As genes are the basic control machine of the cells, alteration of any kind may bring devastating consequences, or malignancy. When compared with the normal cells, where damage of any kind is taken care by the repair system, tumor cells do not have any repair mechanism for the damaged DNA and there is a constant proliferation of cells without displaying senescence, hence, generating a series of abnormal cells, with altered cellular pathways for uncontrolled proliferation, figuring malignant tumors (Alberts et al., 2007; Katzang et al., 2009).
The occurrence of tumor cells at the ducts and not moving out of these ducts is the specialty of this cancer and as a result it does not affect the other regions. Because of these reasons they are called as pre-cancer in women. This cancer does not produce any symptoms and are diagnosed only through mammography.
These spell out an end-goal for quality of life for DCIS patient. Education, better access and more widespread availability of screening mammography has resulted in an increase in breast cancer diagnoses (Welch Weloshin & Schwartz 2008). Even though some experts do not consider Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) to be an actual cancer, it is the most commonly diagnosed type of noninvasive breast cancer or pre-cancer in women today.
In United States, next to non-melanoma skin cancer, breast cancer remains the most prevalent cancer in women and the major cause of death due to cancer. According to latest data facilitated by the U. S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, in the year 2007 the number of women in U.
It is the vector of several viruses including those causing dengue. It has spread from Southeast Asia to North and South America, Europe, Africa and Australia through the transportation of tires. Several attempts have been made to control it but all have failed but there is a promise in genetic engineering in order to manipulate this species whose genetic make-up easily mutates.
The authors show that ILC patient are not different from IDC patients when it comes to survival but can be treated different with better outcome given their different biological signature.
Introduction: In this paper, the analysis of clinical outcome from histological findings has been analysed to show correlation between biological factors and patient survival.