StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease Name University Epidemiology of malignant disease Cancer is one of the gravest challenges faced by the medical professionals today. The morbidity associated with cancer varies in different part of the globe but on an average it accounts for about 20% of total deaths in developed countries…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.4% of users find it useful
Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease"

Download file to see previous pages (Bourke 1983). Sometimes when a high frequency of disease is isolated in a specific region an insight into those environmental and regional factors can give a substantial data to frame prevention guidelines. There are many cancer resource organizations in the world, collecting valuable data and providing statistical information. But unfortunately most of the current data is available for the developed countries. It is not easy to access the remote areas in developing countries and to gather information. Other problems include unavailability of proper diagnostic equipment and inadequate resources. (Nasca 2001). In 2002, cancer accounted for 7 million deaths worldwide. About 11 million new cancer cases were reported same year. Highest percentage was seen in Asia where 45% of the total cancer cases were reported. Lung cancer is still the world’s most common cause of death among cancer patients. (Fauci 2008). Breast cancer is the second most common cancer but fortunately has lower mortality rate than other cancers owing to proper diagnostic tools and possibility of early detection. However, there are certain malignancies more common in developed countries than developing countries. In developed countries Lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers are more common. Whereas liver, breast and cervical cancers more commonly affect population in the developing countries. (Fauci 2008). One of the more important aspects of understanding malignancy is to comprehend the risk factors associated with it. These factors are so called modifiable because we can control or avoid them, dramatically decreasing the incidence of malignancy around the world. Some of important factor includes smoking, obesity, alcohol, inadequate diet, air pollution, unprotected sex and drug abuse. Africa is the second largest continent of the world in terms of area and population. In the past, communicable diseases such as TB and Aids dominated this part of the world. But due to recent development and urbanization the living standard has improved causing a decline in the incidence of communicable disease. Therefore, the incidence of non communicable disease (NDC) is on the rise. Cancer is the second most common non communicable disease and account for about 17% of its mortality. (McCormack 2012). Still the development is not sufficient enough to provide with the advance diagnostic tools and infrastructure to allow early detection of cancer. Moreover, the management of the patient diagnosed with cancer is hampered by lack of resources and expertise. For example, 5 year survival rate of a patient diagnosed with breast cancer in Uganda is less than 50% as compared to 90% in the United States. Hence, the most important step to be taken in this part of the world is to develop a framework that can prevent incidence of cancer. According to a latest study modifiable factors, as mentioned before, are responsible for 19% of cancer in men and 29% in women in sub-Saharan Africa. (McCormack 2012). Work has been done in preventing those risk factors but most of the efforts are stationed in controlling the infections related to cancers such as HPV. Much less is devoted to the environmental and occupational factors. As discussed earlier, the environmental factors include chemical or radiation exposure in air, water or soil whereas occupational factors include industrial hazards and exposure to harmful dust particles such as ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease Essay”, n.d.)
Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1443195-discuss-the-epidemiology-of-malignant-disease
(Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease Essay)
Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease Essay. https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1443195-discuss-the-epidemiology-of-malignant-disease.
“Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/health-sciences-medicine/1443195-discuss-the-epidemiology-of-malignant-disease.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease

Health and Epidemiology - Sociological Issues

However, apart from the general comments of Durkheim regarding the potential causes of suicide, the researcher proceeds to an extensive analysis of suicide as a sociocultural phenomenon. In this context, according to Durkheim, the main types of suicide are the following four (as they are presented in Figure 1 below): a) Anomic suicide, b) Fatalistic suicide, c) Altruistic suicide and d) Egoistic suicide. The above 4 types of suicide refer to different social conditions. More specifically, the Anomic suicide is linked with ‘the moral dimension anomie which occurs when there is an imbalance of means and needs, a de-regulation in peoples’ lives, a loss of moral certainty, a loss of control or a loss of group support&rsquo...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease Outline: The Roles of the Imaging and Treatment Modalities

Dramatic developments in the field of science and technology have provided newer and enhanced diagnostic tools to make arrive at a more precise diagnosis on one side and on the other side given new meaning to the traditional treatment modalities, as well as creating new treatment modalities. 

Peering inside the human body for a better understanding of any abnormalities within that are the cause for illness in a patient had remained an unrealized need until the advent of the x-ray imaging technique. Since then advances in the x-ray imaging techniques have led to new imaging modalities to remove the inadequacies that were experienced through the use of mere x-rays. Fluoroscopy is one such development in imaging modal...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

The impact of Plant Disease on New Zealand

Transmission of PMTV occurs through inoculation of sap in 26 species belonging to Solanaceae or Chenopodiaceae and to Tetragonia expansa and also through grafting (A. Reavy., W. Kashiwazaki., & Barker,1995 ). In some cases, PMTV is known to be transmitted by mechanical inoculation also.

Since PMTV is vectored only through S.subterranea the infection of plants with PMTV depends on the life cycle of S.subterranea which takes about 10-14 days. The life cycle of S.subterranean takes place in 2 phases: Phase I) This is the primary stage of the life cycle initiated with the germination of resting spores known as sporangiosori or cystosori persisting in the soil as spore balls with thick cell walls into zoosporangia. These...
6 Pages(1500 words)Report

Cancer: a Terminal Disease

Only visible progress is observed in the case of breast cancer even though, it is detected in the early stage (3). There are many reasons and characteristic of cancer which makes it incurables some of them are as follows:
Most of the human diseases were classified under two broad categories; 1) genetic diseases and 2) environmental diseases. In genetic diseases, mutation or loss of function in any of the vital genes leads to disease condition and they are generally cured by artificial supplementation of a vital component. For example, in sickle cell anemia where a patient having mutation in both copies of the hemoglobin gene leads to sickle-shaped RBC. The only permanent cure for this disease is bone marrow transplant and gen...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease: Bullish Business Long-Run Trade-Off

Increased concentrations of effluents in the air were found to have particularly been emitted from motor vehicle exhausts, industrial factories, and other burning or combustion activities of Australians (Bartnett et al. 2006). Practically, any engine that utilized fossil fuel is known to be emitters of these effluents in addition to other activities that require burning of materials as have been broadly argued by different concerned sectors for the minimization of its usage, as well, finding alternatives which could be biodegradable fuels.

Air is humankind’s natural source of respiratory Oxygen. Its preservation may have been openly disregarded so that the current generation has to face up to the maintenance of it...
12 Pages(3000 words)Term Paper

A democratic political system is an essential condition for sustained economic progress. Discuss

What is now clear is that democracy is superior when it comes to countries that have a heterogeneous mix of people and cultures since it is imperative that all sections of society be carried along if the process of economic development has to succeed. In case this does not happen, the concerned country faces the risk of social unrest and the inability of the government to carry all the citizens along with the process of economic development.

If we look at some of the competing ideologies of the 20th century. Communism was the dominant ideology of many countries of the eastern bloc. The basic tenet of communism is the absence of private profit and state ownership of the factors of production. This means that all workers...
11 Pages(2750 words)Term Paper

Epidemiology of Avian Influenza, and Pandemic Preparedness Strategies

The Asian Flu claimed 70,000 people’s lives in 1957. The Hong Kong Flu in 1968 killed 34, 000 people (Howard, 2007). These previous occurrences have made world and community leaders as well as the public fearful of a threat of a pandemic. The Avian flu virus is a type A influenza virus. Type A influenza viruses can be found in humans, birds, and other mammals. It is the only type of influenza virus that has caused pandemics as evidenced by history (Beigel, 2008).

Only four known strains of avian influenza viruses have been found to affect humans among them H5N1, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Among the four, H5N1 is the most highly pathogenic. It is the greatest source of alarm due to two primary reasons. The first reason...
7 Pages(1750 words)Report

Heart Disease as One of the Leading Causes of Mortality

...Critically analyse whether there is any short term and/or long term benefit in running an exercise referral scheme to modify risk factors for heart disease Introduction: Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the developed countries. Atheromatous disease of coronary arteries is the most important single cause of death in the western world and Atheroma is the commonest cause of angina pectoris leading to myocardial infarction and its complications. The risk factors in aetiology of heart disease are complex and much of its understanding is based on epidemiological evidence. It has been seen that geographical difference between countries in the manifestation of all aspects of heart disease is evident...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Discuss the relationship between law and outlawry in the Hollywood Western and you should focus upon: Pale Rider (Clint Eastwood, 1985) and Unforgiven (Clint Eastwood, 1992)

The different movie genres also deliver diverse brands of justice. Where modern movies would often highlight violence and the implementation of the laws, other genres may feature the concept of eye-for-an-eye and of righteousness. Regardless of these genres and their varying applications, Hollywood movies show alternate takes of situations that may not always be commonly seen in the real world. The genre of Hollywood westerns features a unique trend in law and outlawry which have spawned many movies and television series. No more has this genre featured as much than by the actor and director Clint Eastwood. Eastwood has several movies under his belt where the battle of good and of Western-style justice has been carried out. And ho...
10 Pages(2500 words)Term Paper

Science in Public Health - Epidemiology

On the other hand, the subjects in cohort studies are selected on the basis of whether they have a certain risk factor/exposure or not and are then followed over time to observe for the development of the outcome/disease (Mann, 2003). Cohort studies can either be prospective or retrospective and can be used to calculate the incidence of a disease and the relative risk of developing a disease.
As compared to observational studies, such as case-control and cohort studies, in interventional studies such as a randomised control trial, the investigator assigns the exposure. In other words, the investigators introduce an intervention and the study objective is to determine the effect of that intervention on the study population. Such...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease for FREE!

Contact Us