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Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease - Essay Example

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Discuss the Epidemiology of Malignant Disease Name University Epidemiology of malignant disease Cancer is one of the gravest challenges faced by the medical professionals today. The morbidity associated with cancer varies in different part of the globe but on an average it accounts for about 20% of total deaths in developed countries…
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Download file to see previous pages (Bourke 1983). Sometimes when a high frequency of disease is isolated in a specific region an insight into those environmental and regional factors can give a substantial data to frame prevention guidelines. There are many cancer resource organizations in the world, collecting valuable data and providing statistical information. But unfortunately most of the current data is available for the developed countries. It is not easy to access the remote areas in developing countries and to gather information. Other problems include unavailability of proper diagnostic equipment and inadequate resources. (Nasca 2001). In 2002, cancer accounted for 7 million deaths worldwide. About 11 million new cancer cases were reported same year. Highest percentage was seen in Asia where 45% of the total cancer cases were reported. Lung cancer is still the world’s most common cause of death among cancer patients. (Fauci 2008). Breast cancer is the second most common cancer but fortunately has lower mortality rate than other cancers owing to proper diagnostic tools and possibility of early detection. However, there are certain malignancies more common in developed countries than developing countries. In developed countries Lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers are more common. Whereas liver, breast and cervical cancers more commonly affect population in the developing countries. (Fauci 2008). One of the more important aspects of understanding malignancy is to comprehend the risk factors associated with it. These factors are so called modifiable because we can control or avoid them, dramatically decreasing the incidence of malignancy around the world. Some of important factor includes smoking, obesity, alcohol, inadequate diet, air pollution, unprotected sex and drug abuse. Africa is the second largest continent of the world in terms of area and population. In the past, communicable diseases such as TB and Aids dominated this part of the world. But due to recent development and urbanization the living standard has improved causing a decline in the incidence of communicable disease. Therefore, the incidence of non communicable disease (NDC) is on the rise. Cancer is the second most common non communicable disease and account for about 17% of its mortality. (McCormack 2012). Still the development is not sufficient enough to provide with the advance diagnostic tools and infrastructure to allow early detection of cancer. Moreover, the management of the patient diagnosed with cancer is hampered by lack of resources and expertise. For example, 5 year survival rate of a patient diagnosed with breast cancer in Uganda is less than 50% as compared to 90% in the United States. Hence, the most important step to be taken in this part of the world is to develop a framework that can prevent incidence of cancer. According to a latest study modifiable factors, as mentioned before, are responsible for 19% of cancer in men and 29% in women in sub-Saharan Africa. (McCormack 2012). Work has been done in preventing those risk factors but most of the efforts are stationed in controlling the infections related to cancers such as HPV. Much less is devoted to the environmental and occupational factors. As discussed earlier, the environmental factors include chemical or radiation exposure in air, water or soil whereas occupational factors include industrial hazards and exposure to harmful dust particles such as ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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