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Biology : Mononucleosis - Term Paper Example

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“Mononucleosis” Introduction Mononucleosis encompass infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is associated with the augmentation of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes (WBC with single nucleus) in blood stream. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a part of the human herpes-virus family that was originally segregated from a cultured Burkitt lymphoma cell line by Epstein et al in 1964 (Rezk, 2007)…
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Biology Term Paper: Mononucleosis
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Download file to see previous pages Species infecting humans is referred as human CMV or human herpervirus-5 (HHV-5). The characteristic feature of all herpes virus encompass their prolonged latency within the body. The infection is related with the salivary gland. in healthy individuals infection may not be noticed but in immuno-compromised individuals such as AIDS patients, organ transplantation cases and new born infants the infection with HCMV could be deleterious. CMV is prevalent in all geographical locations and cause infection in 50-80% of the cases (Ryan, 2004). Mononucleosis caused by EBV Primary infection with EBV does not display any symptoms in childhood stages, while in adults it is related with a self-restrictive communicable mononucleosis syndrome. EBV is found to be associated with numerous human neoplasms together with hematopoietic, epithelial, and mesenchymal tumors (Rezk, 2007). The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has developed a surplus of approaches to elude immune system identification and to institute dormant infection in memory B cells, as in these cells virus inhabits lifetime without displaying any severe effects in most of the cases. Nevertheless, any kind of discrepancy in the stability associated with the intrinsic virus alteration and changes in host immune system characteristics results in the formation of diverse tumors, for instance lymph proliferative disorders, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Merlo et al, 2010). Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is the condition which is represented by the Epstein-Barr virus. Although the condition is usually compassionate or benign but severe ailments are found to be associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. IM is normally self-limiting and is considered mostly by fleeting fever, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly (Okano, 2011). Mononucleosis is an acute state that is associated with fever and swollen lymph nodes. Incubation period is 5-8 weeks. Symptoms encompass- headache, generalized malaise, sore throat, fatigue, fever and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Initial stages display granulocytopenia accompanied by normal white cell count. This is followed by enhanced white blood cell count with a steady pace reaching the maximum of 50,000 approximately due to increase in lymphocyte count. Heterophil antibodies and Monospot tests are positive. Transmission is through kissing and therefore it is also called as kissing disease or glandular fever or mono or mononucleosis (hyperdictionary). Cervical lymphadenopathy, Severe pharyngitis encompassing diffuse pharyngeal swelling and tonsillar inflammation is reported. Bilateral edema of the upper eyelids may be present. The disease is associated with bilateral edema of upper eyelids, petechiae on hard as well as soft palates, inflammation of the anterior or posterior cervical lymph nodes. In later stages, splenomegaly may also be present with acute mononucleosis. In 10 % of the cases hepatomegaly may also be reported. Augmented levels of ALT (alanine transaminase), AST (aspartate transaminase) and lactic acid dehydrogenase in blood may also be reported. In almost 5% of the case jaundice may also occur (Infectious mononucleosis). Key complications occur in 1-5% of the IM cases. these complications encompass lymphocytic meningitis, encephalitis, encephalomyelitis, polyneuritis, mononeuritis and Guillian- ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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