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Geography: Development, Inequality and Environment - Essay Example

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KOSOVO DEVELOPMENT BULLETIN PLAN: 1. Introduction of Kosovo and background to the war 2. Introduction of development initiatives 3. Critical analysis of initiatives 4. Conclusions 5. Evaluation (Propose other policies) 2,500 – 3000 words 1, 500 words commentary Background: The conflict in Kosovo, an autonomous state located within southern Serbia, was primarily contested between the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and Yugoslav military, headed by the highly controversial figure Slobodan Milosevic…
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Download file to see previous pages During the 1970s Albanians mainly populated Kosovo and as the Serbian population depleted, tensions arose between the two nationalities. During this time reports emerged of Serbians suffering from ‘physical, political, legal and cultural genocide’ (Serbian Academy of Science and Arts, 1986), which led the left-wing Serbian Communist Party to take revolutionary action, spearheaded by an official at the time, Slobodan Milosevic. By the turn of the decade, Serbian repression towards the Albanian community had led many Albanians to radicalise, and as a result the KLA was formed. At the time of formation, the KLA’s intentions were relatively unknown, however, with a body of almost 700,000 members, the slide towards war had begun. By 1993, both Serbian and Albanian communities began to mobilise themselves with arms, in the wake of deteriorating socio-economic conditions (The Independent International Commission on Kosovo, 2000). Whilst initially branding the KLA as a terrorist organisation, the US and NATO eventually sought out diplomatic relations with the Army, whilst Milosevic dispelled the organisation as violent insurgents. By this point the international community insisted that Serbian and Yugoslav officials be more responsive to Albanian demands within Kosovo, which only intensified the already fragile situation. This sparked a series of attacks from both KLA and Serbian groups, with hundreds of lives being lost throughout the late 90’s. It has been argued that not until 1998 was Kosovo an issue of importance on the International agenda, and perhaps more of an inconvenience. Kosovo was set to be an issue of growing concern from the late 80s onwards, as an authoritarian state was exposed to the pressures of both liberalisation and democratisation. A poor economic climate and growing criminality lead to Serbian nationalist propaganda and the emergence of a radical Albanian insurgence. These conditions helped to give rise to this ‘new war’. Whilst international NGOs regularly monitored the situation, the international community generally ignored the problem of Kosovo, handing political freedom to Milosevic within Yugoslavia, and thus allowing his nationalist upheaval. It could be said there were some key failures on the part of the international community that lead to the conflict within Kosovo. Firstly, a failure to respond adequately early on during the evolution of the conflict caused the situation to intensify in both seriousness and scale. A particular failing was the neglect Kosovo was shown during the Dayton negotiations, where the Albanians felt their right for independence has been ignored. Perhaps if international action had been taking sooner, the situation would have not as escalated as rapidly and as intensely as it did. Secondly, a lack of international presence on the ground from the international community meant small, mobile insurgent groups were left to reap chaos. This issue is of particular importance with regards to human rights, as there was a distinct lack of protection against any violations. Finally, another failure was the lack of international support towards parallel systems, for example the Democratic ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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