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Productive behaviour and the ‘process theories’ of motivation: Why do, (if they do) people actively perform in a ‘positive’ manner to achieve organisational goals? Introduction Aristotle (2010, p. 38) said “every action must be due to one or other of seven causes: chance, nature, compulsion, habit, reasoning, anger, or appetite”…
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Download file to see previous pages... Performance related to resources and financial performance in any organization is closely linked to the performance of the human resources, and therefore motivation plays a crucial role in performance management. According to Li-Qun (2006) Human Resource Management (HRM) activities range from attracting high quality employees, placing them in appropriate positions, training them to work in the firm's specific way, and motivating them to devote more enterprise to organisational goals. In managing employee performance, operational planning, monitoring of performance, establishing support services required for performance, review of performance and rewarding good performance are the important steps involved. While Content theories of motivation are related to satisfaction of needs, Process theories of motivation deals with the thought processes that influence human behaviour, and this paper seeks to analyze the issue with reference to the process theories of motivation to find out  why do, (if they do) people actively perform in a ‘positive’ manner to achieve organisational goals; whether the ‘process theories’ of motivation provide valid, reliable and predictable explanations for productive behaviour. Motivation The question “What motivates people to actively perform in a positive manner to achieve organizational goals” signifies the need for a profound conceptual analysis of the underlying factors involved in motivation. Krishnaveni & Ramukumar (2006) state “A person's behavior is the outcome of several factors or motives. Motivation is one of the important factors affecting human behavior”. The motivation is the corner stone in the analysis of human behavior which prompts the people to achieve the goals set. The answer perhaps lies in the strategies a company adopt to motivate its employees which may include simplistic approach of carrot-and-stick policy to widely prevalent stock options. Chew, Girardi & Entrekin (2005) state “Several studies of progressive HRM practices in training, compensation and reward have revealed that these can lead to reduced turnover, absenteeism, better quality work, and better financial performance”.   The crux of the issue is that the de-motivated atmosphere is like a disease which spreads very faster and engulfs the whole organization in due course of time. The permutations and combinations of variety of factors add to the complexities further. Viorel, Aurel, Cristian & Stefania (2009, p. 326) state “The European Employee Index was developed by some human resources specialists in the northern European Countries … which offered the best international benchmark ... According to this model, the employees’ motivation, their job satisfaction and sense of loyalty are the result of a large number of factors directly related to the employees’ perception of job and work environment”. Process theories of motivation When a person is rightly motivated to accomplish a task, the results would be phenomenal and the steps taken in the process involves psychological approach and planning to get the people motivated. The process seeks to study and analyze how the employees interact with each other, for example in the case of a meeting, as against the content that is the decision ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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