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# Math - Essay Example

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For example, three buttons, two cups and one more plate. Montessori education develops introductory concepts of arithmetic, such as understanding of numbers in relation to…

## Extract of sample "Math"

Question/Answers Explain Teaching of Numeration, introduction to Arithmetic, , Auto Education, Sensitive Periods and Absorbent mind The basics of concepts such as numeration or counting are already known to children at the age of three. For example, three buttons, two cups and one more plate. Montessori education develops introductory concepts of arithmetic, such as understanding of numbers in relation to each other, and to other concepts such as shape and size of objects.
Auto-Education refers to the child’s ability to construct ideas and concepts on his own by refining his senses through observation. For example, skip-counting and base ten operations are learned through constructing objects and observing them in relation to each other.
Sensitive Periods are durations of time during which the intensity of interest in specific objects in the environment is at its peak. The sensitivity and responsiveness to a particular stimuli declines with time. These periods indicate the opening of increased developmental opportunity.
Absorbent Mind refers to the ability of children to absorb information or impressions from surroundings through senses without involving effort.
2. Explain Arithmetic (Chapter 4 P 164-182)
Arithmetic is the knowledge of numbers and associated processes such as addition and subtraction, which is intuitively learned at early stages of childhood and developed gradually, through repetitive exercises, observation and experience. It helps the mind to distinguish and relate objects by means of symbols and ideas such as shape, space, identity, difference and quantity. For example, a child learns gradation in numbers, such as 1,2,3,4, and recognizes them as distinctive entities by adding or subtracting identical units.
3. Introduce the main point about Chapter 10 P 149-152
In contrast to the older teaching systems, The Teacher describes a new method or system of teaching, which values teacher as a guide or connecting link between objects and the student. This system does not rely on objects as a help to teacher, but as a help to student himself with assistance of the teacher. The role of teacher has been modified from an active corrector of mistakes to a more rigorous but patient guide, who acquaints herself with knowledge of objects and then guides students in using those objects on their own, while prefecting learning and maintaining order in the environment. The teacher should be prudent enough to facilitate needs of both the more and less developed minds at the same time.
4. Explain Spontaneous repetition, development of the mind, normalization, observation and prepared environment
Spontaneous Repetition refers to the tendency of a child to master an activity by repetition. It helps them to identify and comprehend small differences in the environment.
Development of Mind describes the psychological self-construction in children while interacting with their environment. It is a continuous process which begins when new sensitivities appear and gradually fade until new ones emerge, and helps in orderly intellectual development through time. For example, the ability to of mind to choose without conscious intent indicates development.
Normalization refers to the state when a balance between urge and inhibition has been achieved and development proceeds normally. Four characteristics such as love of work, concentration, self-discipline and sociability are central to this process.
Observation refers to the role of teacher in learning environment, in which she observes for purpose of guiding, prefecting and maintaining order. Prepared Environment describes a setting which contains selected materials for learning and encourages free activity. However it ensures cleanliness, maintenance of order, limitations in access to materials and free movement.
5. Introduce the main point about Chapter 19 P 276-279
In chapter 19, it has been argued that younger children are surprisingly capable of solving advanced arithmetic questions such as simple algebra, square root extractions of up to four figures and memorizing algebraic formulae for cube of binomial and trinomial. This capability was observed when children were provided with objects such as beads of colored glass, and a larger cube cut into unequal parts which were colored differently but in a specific order. By practice of arranging beads in different orders, children were soon able to perform four operations on numbers as large as thousands. Through rearranging and ascribing symbols to smaller unequal parts of the cube, children even memorized algebraic formula for cube of a trinomial. Thus, it was revealed that children can remember quantity and order through visual memory of objects.
6. How sensorial and practical life activities relate to Montessori Math curriculum, control of error, direct and indirect Aim of Montessori Math Materials
Sensorial activities includes geometric materials such as cubes, prisms and rods, which aim at refinement of child’s senses and stereognostic skills. The activities help the child in discriminating and identifying objects in relation to properties such as size, shape, color, texture and smell. These objects possess inherent mathematical value as well as control of error, which enables child to learn concepts such as accuracy and self-correction. Practical life activities include real materials and objects, which provide students with learning of concepts such as care of self, people and the environment, and help in development of abilities such as concentration, coordination and confidence. These activities promote physical and psychological independence in children, and include a direct and an indirect aim. For example, the direct aim involved in a flower arrangement activity is to learn the art of arranging objects in a specific order. The indirect aim relates to the math curriculum, such as visually estimating length of stem of a flower that has to be placed in a vase with particular space and length. Read More
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