The Education reform Act of 1988 marks an historic and radical revision of education in England and Wales based on an ideology starkly at odds with that which guided the system’s development in the previous four decades (Cor, 1996)…
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The Education reform Act of 1988 marks an historic and radical revision of education in England and Wales based on an ideology starkly at odds with that which guided the system’s development in the previous four decades (Cor, 1996). The reliance on market forces as a mechanism of quality control and the unprecedented degree of centralized control of the curriculum, for instance, are principles calling for revolutionary changes in the way teachers operate. Their impact has been made more difficult to assimilate by the speed with which these policies are introduces and there political sponsors refusals to acknowledge what may educationists have argued are potentially dangerous implications. And also in this, special education is not only reflected as a broader educational concept but also as a broader social and political concept. (Len, 1988). Special educational needs are defined in the 1993 Education Act as learning difficulties that call for special provision besides that routinely provided in mainstream schools (1993 Act, para 156). If what is provided routinely does not meet the child’s learning needs then a statement of SEN, specifying additional resources will be required. The inexorable rise in the number of children with statements, combined with increasingly high levels of parental expectations concerning special educational needs provision, has led to demands on the founders, the Local Education Authorities (LEAs) which can no longer be met (Ann, 1997).
met (Ann, 1997). Recognizing this, the 1993 Education Act proposed a Code of
Practice to clarify what special educational needs provision should be made
generally available in mainstream schools.
Children with special educational needs form a
substantial minority of the primary school population. The Warnock Report (DES,
1978) suggested that 20 percent of children will have special educational needs at
some time during their school careers. This figure, derived from standardized test
and survey data, has been criticized as arbitrary and self-fulfilling but is supported
by a wide range of research evidence (e.g. Croll and Moses, 1985; Mortimore et
al. 1988; Shorrocks et al, 1992). Thus children with a variety of special
educational need form a significant group and one that may draw
disproportionately on scarce educational resources.
To be precise, in 2005 around 18% of all pupils
in school in England were categorized as having some sort of special educational
need (SEN) (1.5 million children) (Ann, 1997). Around 3% of all children
(250,000) had a statement of SEN and around 1% of all children were in special
schools (90,000) - which represents approximately one third of children with
statements. With such a large number of children involved, it is important to
recognize that many children are receiving the education they need in an
appropriate setting. It is equally important, however, to highlight the difficulties
faced by a large number of parents for whom the system is failing to meet the
needs of their children.
The influence of the Warnock Report was not
restricted to a new conceptualization of special educational needs; it also made
wide - ranging recommendations about the way in which special educational
provision should be developed. The Committee argued that the provision should
be seen as 'additional or supplementary" rather than 'separate or alternative' to
regular education, and described a continuum of settings in which it might take
place. For most children, their needs would be met in ordinary classrooms, with
additional support as required. The Warnock Committee (DES, 1978) heralded a
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At the same time, history has seen a lessening of institutionalization and a greater degree of programs that have been designed to mainstream SEN students to live a productive life among their peers as contributory members of society, rather than isolating them.
Contemporary Issues in Managing Human Resources. The scope of human resources management (HRM) becomes more extensive as management endeavors to meet the needs and goals of its people in the organization. The evolution of human resources management in terms of theoretical frameworks, research and diversity in applications has been increasingly significant in the last century.
The process of inclusion 8. Responding to the Difference 9. Conclusion. 10. List of references. Introduction In this essay I will be examining the difference between integration and inclusion related to special education needs provision in the UK. I will start with a brief introduction of its history and developments and end with the discussion itself.
b. he/she has a difficulty that stops or obstructs him/her from exploiting the educational facilities and opportunities that are extended to the children of the same age group, in the schools situated in his/her neighbourhood or vicinity; or
c. he/she hails from the compulsory school age and satisfies the above mentioned clauses a.
The Special Educational Needs (SEN) Code of Practice provides a standardized approach towards the integration of the children with special educational needs in the mainstream. More importantly it focuses on the rights of the children with special educational needs and empowers them by making them a part of the decision making process of their educational system.
The Code states:
Children who demonstrate features of moderate, severe or profound learning difficulties or specific learning difficulties, such as dyslexia or dyspraxia, require specific programmes to aid progress in cognition and learning. Such requirements may also apply to some extent to children with physical and sensory impairments and those on the autistic spectrum.
The Children’s Act (2004) however highly affects all the children from birth to the nineteen year olds. It aimed at improving the educational achievements of all the children including those children who have special educational
These difficulties direct the children to behave indifferently to the society. The scope of autism has increased in the recent years with about 2% of the population suffering from autism. (what is autism, n.d.; Frith,
These difficulties might occur in the sphere of schoolwork, understanding numbers or having problems in making friends. This implies that they lack the ability to enjoy a normal kind of well-being like