Name: Tutor: Course: Date: University: Developments in Special Educational Needs Introduction In the early part of the 20th century, the provision of education to children with special needs relied heavily on the medical model of defects. This was provided on the 1944 education Act, where children with special education needs were identified by disabilities defined in medical terms…
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This approach concentrated on difference rather than normality, on sickness rather than well being, and specifically on the problem affecting the child. In doing so, children acquired medically diagnosed groups, which emphasized on deficit rather than potential (Jones 2003, p.9). Therefore, in the early 20th century education for children with special needs used the strategy of separate, special schools for children thought to need such schools. In addition, psychometric analysis by early psychologists supported the use of special schools. In 1944, a number of reforms were done on the education system. The majority of the reforms were towards the mainstream education and the availability of free education for all. In addition, the 1944 education reforms also addressed particular aspects of education for education for children with special needs. However, the approach, and definition of children with special requirements was not as sufficient as its requirements for education in general (Hodkinson & Vickerman 2009, p.23). The 1944 Act still relied on the medical model of disability. Under this Act, eleven categories of handicap were identified, and children belonging to those categories were identified based on their desired treatment. The use of unique schools to educate children with special needs remained the most desired approach, although less recognition was paid to the provision of education in mainstream schools. The 1944 Act continued to refer to children with a disability of mind or body, and focused on special schools to cater for handicapped children (Jones 2003, pg 13). Through the 1960s and 1970s, education for children with special needs shifted towards an approach favored by behaviorist psychologist. An example of psychologist who played a crucial role in shaping education for children with special needs was Lois Malaguzzi who spent much his time understanding how children learn. This approach focused on the need to apply operant conditioning techniques. Experts refused the medical model and campaigned for an approach that applied only what that could be observed. The approach was criticized by some behaviorist terming it a significant weakness. However, the reforms were very vital because they emphasized on the possibility to modify the problems of children with special needs. In addition, the reforms placed the responsibility to the teacher as one way of ensuring that the reforms became effective (DfES, 2004). The behaviorist techniques appeared very effective in dealing with particular difficulties such as self help skills. On the other hand, they were seen as less effective in assisting children with duties that required more understanding. It is evident that the 1960s and 70s created a way for new approaches to special needs. During this period, attitudes towards special education started to change, and in some sections the behaviorist initiatives caused the teaching of children with learning problems appear more accessible to teachers in mainstream schools. In connection to this, Vygotsky who was a renowned education theorist, once pointed out that most essential learning by a child happens through social interaction with the help of a skillful tutor. Similar sentiments were put forward by John Dewey who argued that learning and education are interactive and social processes, and the school remains to be a social institution whereby social
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The call for inclusive education is progressively more becoming widespread across Europe and the rest of the world, because diverse institutions and governments assert that to separate children with special needs from other students can be considered discriminatory.
b. he/she has a difficulty that stops or obstructs him/her from exploiting the educational facilities and opportunities that are extended to the children of the same age group, in the schools situated in his/her neighbourhood or vicinity; or
c. he/she hails from the compulsory school age and satisfies the above mentioned clauses a.
At the same time, history has seen a lessening of institutionalization and a greater degree of programs that have been designed to mainstream SEN students to live a productive life among their peers as contributory members of society, rather than isolating them.
According to the study conducted, the acceptance of SEN students in the UK and their inclusion, in the learning system has been a long struggle initiated by activists in support of rights of the disabled. This group of advocates for inclusion shunned away from the past injustices of segregation of disabled students in the UK education system.
The Special Educational Needs (SEN) Code of Practice provides a standardized approach towards the integration of the children with special educational needs in the mainstream. More importantly it focuses on the rights of the children with special educational needs and empowers them by making them a part of the decision making process of their educational system.
The Code states:
Children who demonstrate features of moderate, severe or profound learning difficulties or specific learning difficulties, such as dyslexia or dyspraxia, require specific programmes to aid progress in cognition and learning. Such requirements may also apply to some extent to children with physical and sensory impairments and those on the autistic spectrum.
The major policy development in the field of special needs education in England and Wales in the 1990s was the introduction, as a consequence of the 1993 Education Act, of the Code of Practice on the Identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs.
These difficulties direct the children to behave indifferently to the society. The scope of autism has increased in the recent years with about 2% of the population suffering from autism. (what is autism, n.d.; Frith,
The reliance on market forces as a mechanism of quality control and the unprecedented degree of centralized control of the curriculum, for instance, are principles calling for revolutionary changes in the way teachers operate
These difficulties might occur in the sphere of schoolwork, understanding numbers or having problems in making friends. This implies that they lack the ability to enjoy a normal kind of well-being like
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