Learning is a comprehensive process that relies on learners’ potentials as well as their environment.Favorable external environments promote learning and developmental theories facilitate moderation of the environment …
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Established educational programs play an important role in influencing learning processes and program components, moderated by learning and developmental theories, empowers learning processes to success. Examples of learning theories are social cognitive orientation theory, transformational learning theory and self-directed learning theory while Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is an example of developmental theories. Class sessions, tutoring, advising, program evaluation, and mandatory assessment are examples of program components and this paper reviews them subject to learning theories and developmental theories. Transformational learning theory and educational learning components Transformational learning theory is core to adult learning program. The theory’s core construct is the learning approach in which adults transform their existing knowledge, opinions, and assumptions and assume a more open minded and comprehensive scope of their experiences. The theory relies on meditations, based on positive and negative experiences that motivate an individual and those experiences that develop surprises to adult learners, leading to social change that may be evident in reduced poverty level in the society, enhanced knowledge base in the learners, or reduced level of oppression. Transformational learning also relies on learners’ rationale from which new knowledge constructs are developed from experiences (Merriam, Caffarella and Baumgartner, 2012; Westby, 2007). Class session defines the traditional learning process in which a teacher teaches students belonging to a given class. It is a common approach to adult education, especially because of fixed schedules converges learning time, and constrained facilities. The foundation of class session exposure of the learner to new knowledge and this identifies with diversified aspects of the transformational learning theory. Exposure to new knowledge offers a basis for reflection into the learner’s experience, a process that triggers the transformational learning theory’s aspect of reconstruction of perspectives. Developed knowledge in class sessions also offer a benchmark for determining the motivational aspect of an experience as lower benchmarks would enlist positive attitude while high benchmarks would identify discouragements in a learner’s experience. Interactive class sessions also exhaust learners’ perspectives and rationale to transform approach to knowledge development and to changed held perspectives (King, 2009; Boylan, Bliss and Bonham, 1997). Unlike class sessions, tutoring focuses on small number of students per educators and may sometimes be done on a one-on one basis. Its scope is similar to the scope of class session and therefore identify with transformational learning theory. The tutor, in a facilitator role, exposes learners to constructs that evoke reflection and meditation upon experience to motivate new perspectives. Learnt knowledge from the program component also establishes standards that motivate learners into reflections and meditations. Consequently, tutoring identifies with the transformational learning theory through its concepts that promote reflection, among learners, of their experience, meditation upon the experiences, and integration of the experiences and learnt concepts for a new perspective. Advisory and counseling initiatives are other major components of educational programs and apply to adult education. The adult learner prefers an active approach to knowl
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To learn means to experience a lifelong process of acquiring information and skills from the people around us (Butts & Rich, 2011, p. 203). Nurses utilized various learning theories that they used in the health care setting as part of their continuous professional education.
A major element of effective adult learning that is usually ignored is the role of adult development and how it affects adult learning. This issue is overlooked mostly by adult educators because most people base the knowledge on education rather than on the psychology of development or human development.
This article is a scholarly article thus proving its credibility. The author has deep experience in the field of education. Johnson-Freese, Joan. (2012). The Reform Of Military Education: Twenty-Five Years Later. Joan Johnson-Freese feels that the military education should change and insists on the need to teach tough and think tough by the soldiers.
The difference between adult learning and primary learning identifies special needs for adult learners. Adult learning involves formal and informal educational initiatives that an individual engages in after a long interval following a break from an initial educational program.
According to his theory behavior can be reinforced if it is followed with the offering of particular stimuli and due to this the probability of the same behavior being conducted increases whenever an individual comes in contact with the same stimuli (Leonard, 2002, p.97).
2. Boundary Maintenance: This aspect is depicted through the perceived barrier between the authority and knowledge manifested by the educators, vis-à-vis those of the participants, or the out-of-school
As disclosed in the chapter, the pragmatic or practical approach to program planning which integrates ““real-world constraints,” (and) takes into consideration the continuing changing conditions and the complexity of
Personal Construct and Skinner learning theories show how human interpersonal relationships are shaped through observation and projection about the future.
Behavioral conditions, environmental changes and cognitive conditions determine how an individual behaves. Expectation
However, while there is extensive study on how sports education has an impact on children, it is also worthwhile to note that there is a definite impact on teachers who deliver the sports education to students in different
Such methods that will be use when teaching the adults should be such methods that present, immediate usefulness of the material used to the learners. The method should depict the material used as relevant while it is applied in the most welcoming environment. The best
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