Education Five Areas of Reading Instruction The National Reading Panel Report presents us with a solution to the difficulty of teaching children to read correctly, swiftly and with understanding. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in 2000 summed up a number of decades of scientific study that evidently explains valuable instructions for reading, specifying five analytical areas…
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Its teaching includes assisting children to distinguish, separate, and use phonemes with respect to the letters. Phonemic awareness can also be considered as the ability to examine and produce the isolated sounds in expressions, separating or segmenting terms into the sounds of their components and recognizing words that are similar or different in listening. According to the (NICHD) it is explained as the skill to “focus on and manipulate phonemes in spoken words.” An illustration of phonemic awareness ability is for instance the word cat, which consists of three phonemes or sounds/k/a/t. In order to become skilled at reading a languages that is based on an alphabet, phonemic awareness is essential. As a vital element of comprehending to read and an effective analyst of reading accomplishment, phonemic awareness is a theory that all teachers should recognize and teach skillfully. The sounds that compose up the words that are spoken are known as phonemes. They are not alphabets; in fact they are sounds of speech. For example the alphabet “b” is not a phoneme actually it is an alphabet that has been selected to symbolize the phoneme /b/. Graphemes are used to denote the phonemes in the written speech. They may be in single letters such as (a, e or n) or in group of alphabets that indicates sounds that are distinct like (th, ck or oo) It can be very beneficial to children as it teaches them progressive ways of learning words that are new to them. In order to learn a new word, developing an association among the visual knowledge concerning the word, its meaning, accent, and other facts that are accumulated in the verbal vocabulary of a child is important. This correlation is what facilitates the person who reads to retrieve information stored in the brain when the word is seen as written. Phonemic awareness is very helpful in makings these associations. “There are several levels of phonemic awareness that may be demonstrated through different classroom activities” (Schatschneider, 1991). The three activities that can facilitate learning in this area include, removing the phonemes. Students should be given the task to recognize the word that stays when a phoneme is removed from it. For instance, if we remove /s/ from the word spot, the word that remains is pot. Second activity can be adding the phonemes to a word. The child can add a phoneme and make a new word. For example if we add a /b/ to the word ring we would make a new word bring. The third activity that can assist the students in learning is substituting the phonemes. The child should be assigned the activity to make a new word by substituting one phoneme with another. For example by removing the /b/ from the word bag and substituting it with /r/ makes a new word rag. Moving to the second area phonics, it involves coaching children the connection between distinct sounds (phonemes) and letters and instructing them about the logical and obvious association between words that are written and spoken. The requirement of written language led to the invention of different alphabets. Later on people eventually realized the importance of making spelling coherent with every word as they invented the alphabets to symbolize the sounds of the language they
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The children will learn that the letters they learned in earlier grades will form words and from the new words they learn will tell a story. To be more exact the children will learn word formation, word recognition skills through the use of Phonics and Literature.
Reading Fluency Strategies for Home and School
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Department of Education, 2000). This literature review shall discuss the early stages of reading instruction, when students with learning disabilities often have difficulty acquiring the developmental skills related to reading, including orthographic and phonological awareness.