This activity formerly starts when a child is registered into a school where she is expected to begin her journey of learning. However, this journey of learning, with the passage of time, brings new learning and academic challenges…
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In addition, there is an assumption that in reading that all text have structures (Jiang & Grabe, 2007, p.34). And at the same time, “students in most class rooms are at different mental levels” (McMackin & Witherell(a), 2003, p. 11). In this regard, Hughes, Maccini, & Gagnon, (2003) argue that students at the upper-elementary, secondary and intermediate grades receive less individual attention than in primary grades. As a result, these new expectations and demands give more challenges in the process of learning and comprehension. And the required skills to comprehend become more challenging particularly for students with Learning disabilities (LD). And this becomes more challenging when a class does not represent a one particular type of students rather it is occupied with the students having different understanding abilities, comprehension power and retention. A class of students represents diversity and this diversity provides more challenging time for teachers who are expected to identify each student’s learning level and the teacher is expected to provide the targeted instruction (McMackin & Witherell(b), 2005). Additionally, with the passage of time as students progress, reading and comprehension increasingly incorporates expository text; from which the students are required to learn and comprehend. However, learning through expository is not easy a task for many students rather they are challenged with the reading assignments such as fiction (Kim et al., 2004). For instance, the material of expository text is of more informative nature and most of the time it is included by unfamiliar technical vocabulary terms and expressions. And these terms and expressions considerably differ from those expressions and terms that students had read in their primary classes. In addition, such text material is not organized properly rather poorly. This puts more pressure on students to use some additional complex cognitive tasks with an aim of comprehending the expository material (Lapp, Flood, Ranck-Buhr, 1995). With this added pressure from expository material, students face pressures and retention capabilities are directly hit or they become more exhausted; putting more psychological pressure to ensure learning the context of expository material. Additionally, some authors on the topic, suggest that there is a strong reason to believe that the students would under perform or may not be able to comprehend the context and material inside the expository text, for that purpose, they put forward their assertion that much of the expository material is filled with the huge amount of information. And this piece of information is not limited nor in its context, nor in its implications. Aggregately, there can be no boundary to determine the extent of expository material given a particular subject or topic. As a result, the students do not perform as they are expected to. Constantly, they under-perform and their aggregate graph of learning does not seem to be moving upward rather downward. In this regard, more innovations have been made in order to assist those students who are less equipped to face or manage the challenges of the expository material. Different learning strategies have been developed to assist students with LD (Dexter & Hughes, 2011). They need explicit content enhancements to assist in verbal (e.g. text or lecture) comprehension and graphic organizers (GOs) have often been recommended as an instructional devise to assist these students in understanding increasingly abstract
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Descriptors: Tutoring Program, Intervention, Reading Strategies, Reading Difficulty, Reading Comprehension, Reading Instruction, Standardized Tests. It has been said that third grade reading scores on standardized tests are used to determine how many prisons that will eventually be built in the state of Florida.
Hypothesis Graphic organizers’ different types have considerably increased the learning and teaching process of students facing the problems of learning disabilities. Null hypothesis Whatever types of graphic organizers are used; it would not be ineffective as a way to increase learning of students facing the problems of learning disabilities.
Name Professor Subject Date Using graphic organizers for learning and teaching purposes Introduction Graphic organizers (GOs) are visual and spatial displays constructing relationships between facts and concepts more clear and apparent (Gajria et al., 2007).
This study will examine the concept of reading with comprehension. More specifically, the study seeks to emphasize on learning difficulties, which may be involved in reading with comprehension. The study will focus on these difficulties and the challenges they pose to the understanding of comprehension.
The graphic organizers that are used in learning comprehension include concept maps, story maps, semantic maps, unit organizers and Venn diagrams. Regardless of the name of the graphic organizer, they all deliver the same information. They help the students understand what they read in text books and the information that is in picture books.
Instead of merely asking students to memorize facts, emphasis is put on the processing of information - finding information, recognizing core ideas, selecting between essential and non-essential details, using information to solve problems and communicating information to others (Ellis).
This lesson plan has been constructed for English Language Learners to enhance their reading comprehension skills. The reading and comprehension exercises will, besides sharpening their reading capabilities, enrich their vocabulary and offer them more practice in writing grammatically correct sentences independently.Expectations and Assessment: Students are expected to read and understand the passage clearly.
tions of secondary students – students with learning disabilities, remedial students, holds the promise for sufficient practical and theoretical value for research. The study has a rationale, as it purports to bring out significant findings in the learning pattern of a
echanisms of evaluation and attitudes dispensed formally in the classroom and or through other non classroom activities that commandeer prospective emotional, academic, physical and social development of the college student.
The sole purpose of studying is to read, comprehend
Task 2 incorporates the authors’ ideas in the development of the text. Task 3 involves choosing a text and discussing historical, social, and cultural features that justify in the text including how language use through social
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