“There has been increasing research on organizational change that seeks to explain both why organizations changes as well as why they fail to change”. Most theories and literatures have been published between 1960s and 1980s. …
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ent 52 Secondary Research 52 Interview 55 Types of research format 59 Structured format 59 Semi-structured format: 60 Unstructured format 60 Survey 61 Likert Scale 63 Data gathering procedure 65 Quantitative data gathering 66 Qualitative data gathering 68 Secondary data gathering 68 Online Interview data gathering 69 Statistical Treatment of data 71 Ethical Concern 73 Secondary Analysis and Discussion: 75 Secondary analysis 75 Discussion: 80 Results and Analysis 94 Questionnaire Analysis: 94 Analysis of the Interviews: 119 Conclusion and Recommendations: 127 Summary of Findings: 127 Limitations 130 Recommendations for further research 132 References 133 Appendix 141 Introduction: “There has been increasing research on organizational change that seeks to explain both why organizations changes as well as why they fail to change”. Most theories and literatures have been published between 1960s and 1980s. The dual authority in matrix organization has become as a controversial application and a big argument between pros and cons around the world. The main arguments and theories of dual authority in matrix structure have appeared since 1962 and until current days. The following studies show different views and perspectives between some authors and researchers which indicate that dual authority can be a real concern in the organization structure. Therefore I have selected the main arguments and studies which most of them still exist until now. 1- The book “ MATRIX MANAGEMENT SYSTEM HANDBOOK” “1984 The author “David Cleland, professor of engineering management, Pennsylvania” Although the book was published before more than twenty years, I have found two critical points about implementing the dual authority in matrix organizations, one of them still take place in many books and many studies but without making sure of its validity 1. Under designing matrix structure and implementing the dual design, the author believes that “the more differentiated the organizational unit, the more difficult it is to achieve the required degree of integration”. He believes that matrix organization must reflect the external and internal factors before the implementation and he sees the members as critical factor in this case. The author adapts the notion of Gannon which says that the highest degree of differentiation and integration can be attained with the matrix organization design. “P.234, section III, The human factor in matrix organization, MATRIX MANAGMENT SYSTEM By David Cleland” The question is Does the implementation of matrix organization on the ground have really achieved the highest degree of differentiation and integration? (This can be tested by comparing the performance of the units based on the degree of differentiation and integration) 2. “Implicit in much of the thinking behind dual leadership is the notion that satisfaction and productivity can both be obtained simultaneously. One manager, with natural inclination toward the task or goals of the group, can place more emphasis upon planning, organizing, and controlling group performance. The other manager, with a natural inclination toward people can act as the satisfier, consoler, and emphasize. One works toward increased productivity, the other toward improved morale and group cohesiveness. Both styles are needed for group effectiveness
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“Why Organizations Changes As Well As Why They Fail to Change Thesis”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/business/1396693-dual-authority-in-matrix-organization.
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