Organization Behavior Discussion Responses (Name) (University) (Course) (Tutor) 1. A. The Hawthorne experiment headed by two researchers: Elton Mayo and Mary Parker Follet involved six female workers. The team altered the working conditions of the workers and monitored the effect it had on their morale and productivity…
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The Hawthorne legacy has had a strong influence in today’s workplace by setting the standards for managers to view people not as machines but as humans and attend to their individual needs; offers supportive leadership at the work place rather than pushing for results (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2006). McGregor’s Theory X assumes that most people dislike work and try to avoid it when they can, therefore they must be coerced and threatened in order to work. Theory Y on the other hand says people like work as it is a natural activity like rest or play and people are capable of self-control and self-direction when they understand the goals. Theory X goes ahead to assume that people prefer to be directed and tend to avoid responsibility and that they are only interested in security. Theory Y on the other hand people get committed when they are rewarded for it and that they will learn and seek responsibility as they are imaginative and creative. It is hard to work under Theory X managers as most of them only stress on work and more work without understanding employee needs. I prefer the Theory Y managers because they understand people and they are concerned about creating positive relations that foster productivity in the organization (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2006). C. The term E-business is defined as the use of the internet to more effectively and efficiently manage every aspect of a business. Employees today have acquired skills in many areas of digital communications and these include the use of blogs, emails, social networking and other sites where users provide and refine content. In this kind of environment therefore where the employees have the control over the information that they can share and access, the role of the manager is evolving into one that aims at providing the means for collaboration that is they learn the need for team work and empowerment in independent decision making (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2006). 2. A. There are three layers of organizational and these include: (1) observable artifacts which are the physical manifestations of an organization culture such as manner of dress, acronyms etc. ; (2) espoused values which are states values and norms preferred by an organization; (3)basic underlying assumptions which are the things taken for granted but guide organizational behavior. There are four functions of organization culture: (1) organizational identity; (2) Collective commitment; (3) social system stability; (4) it acts as a sense making mechanism (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2006). There are four types of organizational culture according to the competing value framework each with distinct characteristics. The first is a clan culture and this has an internal focus and values flexibility: it uses employee involvement as a method of achieving flexibility. The second is an Adhocracy culture which has an external focus and values flexibility. This culture values innovation and fast responses to change. The third is a market culture which has a very strong external focus valuing stability and control. They are majorly driven by competition and put emphasis on customer satisfaction. The fourth and last category is the hierarchy culture that has an internal focus valuing stability and control: it lays emphasis on formal structured work in order to meet high standards (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2006). B There exist six socialization tactics used by organizations to socialize employees. Each of the tactics provides an organization with two
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