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The circannual rhythm occurs with a difference of one year under persistent surroundings and presumes a time of one year under natural environment (Berthold 83). The migrant birds…
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due: Questions Describe the annual cycle of migrant birds, and briefly comment on how they balance thechanging energetic demands over the course of a typical year.
A key feature of the annual cycle of majority of migrant bird is defined by the circannual system. The circannual rhythm occurs with a difference of one year under persistent surroundings and presumes a time of one year under natural environment (Berthold 83). The migrant birds balance their energy through low reproduction success as a result of high nest predation. In addition, the birds do not moult in time for energy-demanding period (Norris and Lopez: 44).
2) Briefly explain the consequences of anisogamy, using examples to illustrate points.
The consequence of anisogamy is that it creates sexual competition and conflict. For example, the male sperms develop to be small, swifter and have a short life span while the female eggs grow bigger, less mobile and have a long lifespan (Neal 336).
3) Briefly describe four alternative reproductive strategies found in vertebrates
The four alternative reproductive strategies include (Sloman, Rod and Balshine 300): (1) Reversible ART: this is where independent animals can change forth and back between patterns; (2) Sequential ART: the independent animals change from one scheme to another at a particular time in their life span; (3) Plastic ART: in this strategy, the independent animals can change the plan throughout their life; (4) Fixed ART: in this strategy, independent animals adopt a single scheme throughout their life.
4) State five ways in which Teleost fish differ from other fish in terms of diversity, morphology and physiology.
- The teleost fish has pelvic fins that are situated more anteriorly near the pectoral fins.
- In teleost fish the target genes are triggered by distinct hormonal receptors for instance androgen in eels and thyroid hormone in salmon (Dufour, Rousseau & Kapoor: 10).
- The energy prerequisite of teleost fish is given by 14-85% amino acids (Wright and Paul 78).
- The teleost fish disclose much diversity in terms of environment preference, body form, adaptations and behavior.
- Most of these fishes move by undulatory contractions of their body strength (Hickman, Larry and Larson 323).
5) The gross anatomy of sharks has not changed much over the last 360 million years. List five morphological or physiological characteristics of sharks that have made the shark form such an evolutionary "success". For each characteristic state the advantage that it gives
- The sharks have mobility of the head relative to the body and sharp-toothed jaws that assist them to catch prey and cut it into pieces that are easy to swallow (Eddy and Handy 32).
- The sharks are very sensitive to vibrations occurring in water. The sensitivity helps them to detect preys.
- The sand tiger shark has needle-like teeth. The teeth help the shark to catch small slippery fishes (Scott 1).
- Most of the sharks are nocturnal. They have the ability to see at night, and this helps them in foraging.
- Sharks swim with their mouths open with gill rakers upright and enlarged across the openings between the gill arches to build a sieve. The sharks are able to feed on zooplankton, small fish and fish eggs (Fowler, Sharks, Rays & Chimaeras 253).
6) What are the problems with our current Linnean system of vertebrate classification? How have new cladistic and phylogenetic techniques helped us to improve our knowledge of vertebrate evolutionary relationships?
The current classification of Linnaeu’s system puts reptiles and amphibians in different classes that indicate their maximal variety of biological characteristics and lifestyles (Schneider, Krasny, Morreale & Tolpa 7). The phylogenetic technique gives evolutionary trees that provide the basis for biodiversity or comparative of a broad range of evolutionary difficulties. The cladistics assists in the production of phylogenetic information utilized to generate the evolutionary trees (Laurin 2).
Works cited
Berthold, P. Avian Migration. Berlin: Springer, 2003. Print.
Dufour, S., Rousseau, K., & Kapoor, B. G. (Eds.). (2012). Metamorphosis in Fish. CRC Press.
Eddy, F B, and Richard D. Handy. Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Fishes. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
Fowler, Sarah L. Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. Gland:
IUCN-The World Conservation Union, 2005. Print.
Hickman, Cleveland P, Larry S. Roberts, and Allan Larson. Animal Diversity. Boston: McGraw-
Hill, 2003. Print.
Laurin, Michel. How Vertebrates Left the Water. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.
Print.
Norris, David O, and Kristin H. Lopez. Hormones and Reproduction of Vertebrates. London:
Academic, 2011. Internet resource.
Michael, Scott W. Reef sharks and rays of the world. ProStar Publications, 2005.
Neal, Dick. Introduction to Population Biology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Print.
Sloman, Katherine A, Rod W. Wilson, and S Balshine. Behaviour and Physiology of Fish. San
Diego, Calif: Elsevier Academic Press, 2006. Print.
Schneider, Rebecca L, Marianne E. Krasny, Stephen J. Morreale, and Tami Tolpa. Hands-on
Herpetology: Exploring Ecology and Conservation. Arlington, Virginia: NSTA Press, 2001. Print.
Wright, Patricia, and Paul M. Anderson. Nitrogen Excretion. San Diego: Academic Press, 2001.
Internet resource. Read More
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