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Human Biology - Coursework Example

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b) For each of the subdivisions you have labelled above (the ones originally marked by?) explain their functions within the nervous system and in the case of certain answers their relationships to each other.
Its primary function is to regulate all the activities of the human…
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Download file to see previous pages These two are components of the autonomic nervous system. These two systems work in a reverse manner to the body so as to enhance its adaptability to the environment (Mader, 2006). In this regard, the parasympathetic nervous system assists in the conservation of the body’s physical resources and the maintenance of normal body functions. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the regulation of ‘flight or fight’ responses such as increasing the heart rate and enabling an individual to escape a potential dangerous situation.
The motor neuron performs the role of impulse transmissions from the Central Nervous System to other glands and muscles spread within the body (Mader, 2006).. It is composed of dendrites, cell body, myelin sheath, node of ranvier, and synaptic knobs. The dendrites facilitate the transportation of nerve impulses from neighbouring neurons into the cell body. The myelin sheath assists in the nerve fiber protection, insulation as well as a faster transmission rate of the nerve impulses. The nodes of Ranvier assist in nutrient uptake and expulsion of waste products.
It is composed of a cell body and synaptic knobs. It is responsible of the transmission of electrical impulses created by stimuli reaction from other nerves. In this regard, it assists the brain in the processing of information.
Nerve impulse initiation from one end to the other along a neuron is made possible due to the electrical differences across the neuron’s membrane (Mader, 2006). In this regard, an un-stimulated neuron is normally polarized. In this regard, there is an electrical charge difference between the inner parts and outer region of the membrane. The polarization of the membrane is achieved by the maintenance of surplus potassium ions on the inner region and surplus sodium ions on the exterior region of the membrane (Mader, 2006). Leakage channels allow the leaking of specific amounts of potassium and sodium ions across the membrane. At ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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