They are antigens connected with tumors. They are usually depicted and present in placenta and testis. Sertoli and Leydig cells are tubular cells which do not express CTA. An example is MAGE – A, its depiction starts in primary spermatogonia…
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The antigen HOM-TES-14 which is repeatedly encountered during CDNA expression library is encoded by the SCP-1 gene, which is mainly expressed during prophase of mitosis in spermatocytes and involved in homologous chromosomes pairing therefore is less restricted in its expression. CTA is expressed less in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors than seminomas germ cell tumors (Chen, et al., 2013).
There are CTA that are encoded on the X-chromosome called the X-CTA genes and those that are not referred to as non-CTA genes. More than half of all CTA are X-CTA and often constitute multi-gene families organized in well-defined clusters along the X-chromosome where different members are arranged into complex direct and inverted repeats. The genes encoding non-X-CT antigens are distributed throughout the genome and are mostly single copies (Cheng, et al., 2011).
The X-CTA genes are expressed basically on the spermatogonia that are proliferating germ cells while non-X-CTA are expressed in the late stages of differentiation such as spermatogenesis in the normal testis. MAGE-A3, MAGE-8, MAGE-A10, XAGE-2 and XAGE-3 have been found to be expressed in the placenta in addition to testicular expression. The CTAs have different functions as various CTAs are expressed during different stages of spermatogenesis (Fratta, et al., 2011).
In tumors of diverse histotypes, CTAs are largely distributed. Among various kinds of tumors, CTA varies and is depicted by data from the evaluation of its transcripts (Fratta, et al., 2011). The division of cells resulting to nuclei whereby the total chromosome number is reduced by a half its original number is termed as meiosis. The nuclei that arise from the parent nuclei are normally same as the parent nuclei but they genetic makeup is normally different. This is because genetic diversity is permitted during reproduction. Meiosis is composed of two phases, Meiosis I and II. It is through these stages that meiosis gives rise to
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On the other hand, some researchers propose that cancer is brought about by dietary (Stein, 2008) or viral factors (Sarg and Gross, 2007). The discovery of cancer/testis antigens has opened up a wide range of opportunities for further research on cancer prevention and diagnosis (Madsen et al., 2003; Tajima, 2003; Grizzi et al., 2007; Hoffman, Caballero, Costa, Blanc and Rodin, 2007; Luo et al., 2007; Neesse et al., 2007; Salemi et al, 2007; Stevenson, Chen, Cohen, Chua, 2008; Domae et al., 2009; Meklat et al., 2009).
The increased blood supply increases oxygen and also nutrient supply for increased proliferation. However, some recent studies have thrown light upon the fact that the glucose and oxygen levels of tumors that are locally advanced are actually less than the levels necessary for normal tissue proliferation, despite establishment of tumor vessels.
Currently there are many pharmacological as well as non pharmacological treatment options available. Not one can be considered as the best option. This is because the types of pain and their severity are the key determinants in the selection of pain treatment.
This report is a review of the literature on how adolescents are influenced by cancer i.e. how they suffer and what fatigue they carry at the time of the disease (Grinyer, 2009). It is going to review the life of the adolescent cancer patients and their methods to cope up with cancer and caner influences. The review will be made in the light of the contemporary literature and in the scope of the present medical understanding
Compared to the other alternatives, the technique is particularly preferred it allows for enhanced localization of the specific targeted area thereby allowing for the delivery of maximum radiation dose while at the
Another way that healthy cells differ from cancer cells is that healthy white blood cells can detect damaged cells, such as viruses, and attack them, stopping them before they spread the virus to the rest of the body. Cancer cells, however, can pass through this system without being detected, which means that the immune system is not notified to their presence (Skehan 15).
There is a need to develop innovations in different medical spheres to deal with cancer. Thus, immunotherapy of cancer is very popular nowadays. Scientists all over the world are looking for novel antigens and they are focused on identification of different types of tumor, which are properly reacting for immunotherapy.
Research has shown that some of these genes that are only expressed in the testes are also expressed in other somatic cells when they become cancerous tumor cells. The cells in the testes often escape the cells of immune system, because of which they are protected from antibodies that are directed towards cancer-testis antigens.