The Role of Cellular Pathology in Investigation of Lymphoma Student ID Number & Code Date Total Number of Words: 2,996 Introduction Lymphoma is actually a type of blood cancer cell that develops as part of the immune system…
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414). The presence of extranodal lymphoma is a serious health condition because it can adversely affect other organs like the brain, bones, and the skin. Similar to lyphoid leukemia, lymphomas can originate in lymphocytes which involves the blood circulation and bone marrow. According to Parham (2005, p. 414), lymphomas that originates in lymphocytes will not trigger the development of static tumors. The main function of lymphocytes is to detect not only the presence of infectious organisms or pathogens like virus and bacteria which may invade the human body or the presence of any forms of abnormal cells such as cells that are infected by virus or bacteria and the presence of cancer cells (Martini et al., 2007, p. 578). When this happen, the lymphocytes work to destroy either the infectious organism or response to the presence of abnormal cells. Specfically the B lymphocytes function by producing protein antibodies that will circulate around the lymph and blood to carry out invasive pathogens and abnormal cells in the body. On the other hand, the T lymphocytes is responsible in killing the pathogens that are transported by the B lymphocytes from the affected area (Bender et al., 1997, p. 164). Lymphoma happens when the B or T cells uncontrollably grow and multiply to form a cancerous mass or tumors (Bertrand et al., 2010; Connors, 2009). Even though lymphoma is a type of cancer that is cureable, between 40% to 70% of the affected person may not survive (Lymphoma Research Foundation, 2012). To improve the treatment given to patients with lymphoma, it is necessary on the part of the healthcare professionals such as the cytopathologists or cytotechnologists to closely examine and have a better understanding with regards to the role of cellular pathology in investigating incidence of lymphoma. As part of going through the main discussion, it is necessary to identify and discuss the types, subtypes and classification of lymphoma. Eventually, the importance of cellular pathology with regards to investigating lymphoma will be tackled in details followed by discussing the common laboratory tests used in investigating cases of lymphoma. Types, Subtypes, and Classification of Lymphoma Classified under hematological neoplasm, lymphomas may develop under different classification, form, and type. In 1832, the first study on lymphoma was published by Thomas Hodgkin. For this reason, the first type of lymphoma is known as the Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Hellman and Mauch, 1999, p. 5; Kuppers and Rajewsky, 1998). The other type of lymphoma is known as the non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Kramer et al., 2012; Bertrand et al., 2010; Swerdlow et al., 2008). The Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma develop in almost the same way except for the fact that the tissue cells that is affected by the Hodgkin’s lymphoma is composed of a single type of cell known as the Reed Sternberg cell (Kuppers and Rajewsky, 1998). In most cases, the Hodgkin’s lymphoma can be found not only in the lymph nodes but also in other organs like the bone, bone marrow, liver, lungs, and spleen (Connors, 2009). Examples of Hodgkin lymphoma includes: nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and the four (4) subtypes of classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) which includes the mixed cellularity CHL, the nodular sclerosis CHL, lymphocyte-rich CHL, and the lymphocyte-depleted CHL (Pileri et al., 2002). Unlike the Hodgkin’s lymphoma, a wide-range of cancer cells fall under the type of non-Hodgkin’
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Glycogen is preserved in the slides using the alcoholic preservation methods. The use of formalin solution will help to reduce the shrinkage and polarization of the tissue. Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the structures containing large amounts of glycogen, glycoprotein, mucin, proteoglycan and other basement membranes.
Liver slides for glycogen and ileum slides for mucin staining (using Alcian Blue) were prepared as well with use of diastase digestion. Introduction The Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain is a stain routinely employed in several cellular pathology laboratories.
Since this case involves a human being and thus human materials, which is a scarce situation. Surgical materials or rather tissues are the best source of human tissue due to the ability to remove the normal tissue together with the affected/diseased tissues.
Lymphoma can be diagnosed through an excisional biopsy, by obtaining a minute sample of tissue from the affected body site (maybe the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin, or even the stomach, skin or brain).
In the first section of the tissue examination, Haematoxylin and Eosin stain is used to give a good visibility of the cells and nucleus of the tissue and their activity state. Haematoxylin is a dye that is
Neutrophil infiltration can also be appreciated in submucosa and muscularis externa. Diagram also shows aggregates of lymphoid follicles which can be appreciated by the purple colour they have taken up after staining. H&E staining have stained an organism in the second
Upon graduating from college of sciences, I had the opportunity to work at King Abdul Aziz hospital in 2008. I aspire to continue with my studies in medical diagnostics at the University.
Based on my laboratory science background and
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