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Imagine techniques that can be used for used for the screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer - Essay Example

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Imaging techniques that can be used for the screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer Introduction Prostate cancer results in large number of deaths among the US men, even though the disease itself cannot be termed as lethal (Jemal, Siegel, Ward, et al., 2008)…
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Imagine techniques that can be used for used for the screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer
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Download file to see previous pages Now the main challenge lies in characterising clinically admissible tumours from the ones that would have remained undiagnosed if the patient were unscreened. The current development of various imaging techniques and integration of molecular, functional anatomic data make way for better diagnosis and classification of prostate cancer. However, the appropriate use of imaging is difficult to define, as many controversial studies regarding each of the modalities and their utilities can be found in the literature. However, uses of imaging in medical practices have progressed slowly owing to the absence of a precise definition for its appropriate use. The current method adopted for diagnosing and managing prostate cancer follows the use of various pathologic risk factors such as clinical stage and Gleason score, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The imaging techniques traditionally used for diagnosing prostate cancer can no longer be counted as reliable enough to locate the minute quantities of prostate cancer often seen at the presentation stage, as applicability of PSA serum has undergone large-scale stage migration. Current observations reveal that PSA tests provide very little data on the exact location and the extent of disease. Test limitations in this regard include failure to detect extraprostatic disease when PSA levels are low, lack of correlation with cancer volume mainly due to large contributions made by the benign part of the gland, and low specificity while detecting cancer. The advanced form of imaging techniques (molecular based) have primarily focused on elaborating the specificity and sensitivity of cancer diagnosis through knowledge of the particular characteristics of disease biology. Thus, evolution of modern imaging modalities has created a new scope for improved clinical diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Technological advances in the process of imaging have allowed for the use of disease biology, which helps in a more accurate capture of the location, extent of spread, and aggressiveness of the disease. This article, studies the various imaging techniques that can be used for the screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer. Discussion Brief background on named cancer including prevalence and current therapies The prostate is a small walnut shaped gland located in the pelvis region (between the bladder and the penis) and is found only in men. It covers the urethra, a tube that carries the urine from bladder to penis (NHS, 2012). Its main function is to take part in semen production. The prostate gland produces a concentrated white fluid, which is then diluted by the addition of a protein, referred to as prostate-specific antigen or PSA. The testicles, which produce sperm, then mix with the fluid, to form semen. As men get older, the prostate gland tends to get bigger. While this may lead to no clinical issues for a majority of the men, some may develop symptoms, when the gland becomes bigger and starts pressing on the urethra, causing urinary problems. This medical condition is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH, and it mainly affects men over 50 years of age. However, it is not carcinogenic in nature and is treatable. Prostate cancer is one of the common forms of cancer seen amongst the UK men. Annually, around 36,000 men develop prostate cancer in the UK and account for nearly 25% of all the cancer cases reported in men (NHS, 2012). Reports show that, “ ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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