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The involvement of ion channels in cancer - Dissertation Example

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Abstract The study delves on the correlation between ion channels and cancer. It expounds on the nature and the general pathophysiology of the disease, as well as the symptoms it presents. It also provides a brief overview of the possible causes of acquiring cancer…
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The involvement of ion channels in cancer
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The involvement of ion channels in cancer

Download file to see previous pages... The study focuses on potassium and sodium ion channels as the key receptors that can be utilized along with specific types of toxin, to impede the metastatic phase of cancer. This notion can help improve cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Introduction Cancer is considered a malignant neoplasm which is classified as disease that affects a group of cells that manifest mutation or uncontrolled growth, which attacks and invades adjacent tissues, it then spreads through a process of metastasis that extends to other parts of the body through lymphs or blood. Cancer comprises of three malignant properties which differentiate them from benign tumors that does not spread or metastasize. Causes of cancer can be categorized into two: environmental and hereditary or genetic (Anand, Kunnumakkara, Kunnumakara, et al 2008). Environmental factors that trigger cancer includes: diet and obesity, infection, radiation, lack of physical activity, tobacco and pollutants (Danaei, Vander Hoorn, Lopez, Murray, & Ezzati 2005; Irigaray, Newby, Clapp et al 2007; Parkin, 2006). Such factors develop the mutation of the cell's genetic composition. As per the process of the reproduction of cells, it is a complex procedure that is regulated by various classes of genes, which consists of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes (Kinzler et al 2002). Acquired diseases or abnormalities are hereditary, which can develop into cancer. Approximately five to ten percent of most cancer cases are hereditary (Anand et al. 2008). The presence of cancer can be determined through the results of radiology or the manifestations of symptoms. However, diagnosis can only be identified by means of a microscopic examination of a biopsy specimen. Most cases of cancer can be treated through chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. The type and degree of the cancer influences the prognosis. This illness can affect everyone, regardless of age, but some are more prevalent in children, whereas the risk of developing cancer comes with aging. Mortality rate due to cancer increases due to lifestyle changes and aging (Jemal, Bray, Center, Ferlay, Ward, & Forman 2011). Classification There are different types of cancer, and they can be identified through the type of cell in accordance to the semblance of the tumor. Each classification are as follows: Carcinoma is a type of cancer that originated from epithelial cells, which are most commonly referred to those that manifest in the breast, prostate, lung and colon, whereas Sarcoma is caused by a mutated connective tissue or mesenchymal cells. Blastoma is a derivative from embryonic tissues or immature precursors, which are most common in children. Carcinoma, blastoma and sarcoma are suffixes of cancer types, which is defined as the origin. Lymphoma and Leukemia is derived from blood forming or hematopotoietic cells. Germ cell tumor manifests from pluripotent cells. This type of cancer usually manifests in the testicle and ovary if found on adults, but arer more emminent in babies and children (Anand et al. 2008). Pathophysiology Cancer, as a disease, can be traced as a failure of a tissue growth to be regulated. A particular cell mutates or transforms when a gene that regulates cell growth becomes modified (Croce 2008). Mutated genes can be classified into two: Oncogenes, which are responsible for cell growth and reproduction; and tumor suppressor ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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