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Give a detailed description of the structure and composition of HIV1 and discuss the functional role of each of the viral components, indicating where possible its contribution to the pathogenicity of this virus - Essay Example

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The (MA) matrix protein surrounding the capsid protein (CA) core structure, lies inside the bilayer, which in turn encloses two alike plus-sense…
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Give a detailed description of the structure and composition of HIV1 and discuss the functional role of each of the viral components, indicating where possible its contribution to the pathogenicity of this virus
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Structure and Composition of HIV-1
The HIV type 1 virion is enclosed in a bilayer of lipid into which the viral envelop protein is introduced, a gp120±gp41 homotrimer. The (MA) matrix protein surrounding the capsid protein (CA) core structure, lies inside the bilayer, which in turn encloses two alike plus-sense viral, single-stranded, RNA connected with integrase (IN) proteins, reverse transcriptase (RT) and nucleocapsid (NC) (Walker and Rapley, 2005:456). The Nef and Vif proteins are closely linked with the core. The R (Vpr), viral protein, is also located inside the virion, but perhaps it is positioned on the outer side of the core (Zhou et al, 1999). Capsid defends the single stranded RNA, each having a 9 genes copy. The genes encoding of structural proteins involves Env, Pol and Gag gene like For coding GP160 Env gene plays its role and breaks down it into GP41 and GP120.
Functional role and Contribution in the HIV-1 pathogenicity
GP120 initiates infection by getting attached to particular target cells via the CD4 protein, primary receptor along with a co-receptor, usually CXCR4 or CCR5 (for a review, see Levy, 1998), resulting into the fusion of viral bilayer of lipid with plasma membrane. Afterwards it is generalized that the core extends into a complex of undeveloped reverse) (Khiytani and Dimmock, 2002:50), which then matures and forms a better distinct nucleoprotein structure usually termed as PIC within the cytoplasm.
Subsequent to fusion, it is assumed that the core of virus extends into an undeveloped reverse transcription complex and in turn this grows-up into a better distinct nucleoprotein structure which is termed as PIC (Jeang, 2007:430). They contain Vpr, RT, reduced quantity of MA, IN and HMG 1. The protein RT reverse transcribes the RNA of virus PICs transport the newly produced viral cDNA to the nucleus and integrate it into the intended cell genome. MA , IN and Vpr may also contribute in such targeting.
HIV-1 infection is a subtle worsening of the immune system of the cell. The CD4+ T-cells proportion and the quantity both decrease consistently over a period of time which is then associated with the growth of AIDS in such patients. Researchers assume that such a CD4+ T-cell depletion observed within the plasma section was insightful of the whole pool of CD4+ T-cell and was driven by virus replication within the host (Leonard et al, 1995:123-126).
References
Jeang, K.T. (2007) Biology and Pathogenesis: Viral Mechanisms Advances in Pharmacology, vol. 55, ed.2, Academic Press.
Khiytani, K.D. and Dimmock, N.J.(2002) ‘Characterization of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pre-integration complex in which the majority of the cDNA is resistant to DNase I digestion’, Journal of General Virology, p.83.
Leonard, J.M. Ho, D.D. Neumann, A. U. Perelson, A.S. Chen, W. Markowitz, M. (1995) ‘Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection,’ Nature , vol.373, pp.123-126.
Walker, J.M. and Rapley, R.(ed.) (2005) Medical BioMethods Handbook: Methods in Molecular Biology Series, Humana Press.
Zhou, J. Kotov, A. Flicker, P. and Aiken, C. (1999) ‘Association of Nef with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Core’, J Virol [Electronic],vol.73, no.10, October. 8824-30. Available: , [5 July 2012]. Read More
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