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Role of the a3b4 nicotinic receptor in drug addiction and in the antiaddictive action of novel ibogaine analogs - Essay Example

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The a3b4 nicotinic receptor plays an important role in the process of drug addiction and in the anti-addictive action of novel ibogaine analogs. This sections deals with a contemporary literature review on this topic.

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Role of the a3b4 nicotinic receptor in drug addiction and in the antiaddictive action of novel ibogaine analogs
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Extract of sample "Role of the a3b4 nicotinic receptor in drug addiction and in the antiaddictive action of novel ibogaine analogs"

Download file to see previous pages The abnormalities that produce addiction, however, are wide-ranging, complex, and long-lasting. They may involve an interaction of environmental effects, for example, stress, the social context of initial substance use, and psychological conditioning. Many factors, both individual and environmental, influence whether a particular person who experiments with drugs will continue taking them long enough to become dependent or addicted. For individuals who do continue, the drug's ability to provide intense feelings of pleasure is a critical reason (Kalivas and Volkow, 2007).
Historical and social factors are keys to the understanding of addictive disorders. These factors affect the rates of addictive disorders in the community, the types of substances abused, the characteristics of abusive users, the course of these disorders, and the efficacy of treatment. Addictive substances aid expression of several human functions that can enhance both individual and social existence. On the individual level, desirable ends include the following: relief of adverse mental and emotional states, relief of physical symptoms, stimulation to function despite fatigue or boredom, and “time-out” from day-to-day existence through altered states of consciousness. Substance use and dependence cause a significant burden to individuals and societies throughout the world. The World Health Report 2002 indicated that 8.9% of the total burden of disease comes from the use of psychoactive substances (World Health Organization, 2004). The report showed that tobacco accounted for 4.1%, alcohol 4%, and illicit drugs 0.8% of the burden of disease in 2000. Much of the burden attributable to substance use and dependence is the result of a wide variety of health and social problems, including HIV/AIDS, which is driven in many countries by injecting drug use. Over the past decade, use of addictive substances has infiltrated its way into the mainstream culture in certain countries. Younger people in particular seem to possess a skewed sense of safety about these substances, believing rather erroneously that they are safe and benign. Meanwhile, addictive substances are posing a serious threat to the health, social and economic fabric of families, communities, and countries. For many countries, the economic burden is relatively new, but ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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