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Shock Horror Smoking is good for you - Essay Example

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Date For therapeutic purposes nicotine and nicotine compounds have been explored assuming that they have beneficial effects on learning and memory. From epidemiological studies we know that smokers have lower incidences of disorders like the AD and PD due to the neuroprotective effect of the smoke from the substances…
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Shock Horror Smoking is good for you
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Download file to see previous pages The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have their location in the neuromuscular junction, autonomic ganglia and the central nervous system. The channels of the ions are activated by nicotine with the influx of both sodium ions and calcium ions which is closely followed by depolarization. For the sake of neuroprotection we would discuss the 12 subunits of 8 alphas and 4 betas of the CNS by origin. These receptors are though lost with age mostly 50% of them. Allosteric sensitization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is considered to be a novel treatment strategy of the AD (Eysenck & Eaves, 1980). The Galantamine which is the che approved inhibitor for the treatment of AD is highly efficient in improving the cognitive impairment than the che inhibitors themselves. Preclinical studies of the neuroprotective effects of nicotine give stress to vivo whose effects occur by up regulation of the protective protein (Shopland, 1983). Though smoking is associated with the incident of serious diseases like cancer, it should be realized that there is a change in the perception of how smoking most so that of tobacco on cancer. It should therefore be understood that there is a quite dangerous aspect of tobacco that is the nicotine. The pharmacological definition of tobacco in the nineteenth century is that of the isolation and synthesis of nicotine where the extreme toxicity of nicotine which was also confirmed at the time. The prevailing hypothesis among researchers and scientists is that nicotine helps protect the brain by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that sit on the end of nerve terminals. This action by nicotine is similar to turning up the volume of a radio signal, causes brain cells to increase the release of neurotransmitters depleted in diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's (Factor, 2002). The current evidence of the neuroprotective effect of nicotine is evidenced in the PD disease. Parkinson's disease, PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting a bigger percentage of individuals most so those over the age of 65 years. While effective therapy exists for treating the bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor associated with the disease, the causes of these disorders are still unknown and still remain a dream (Shopland, 1983). There is no treatment available to prevent or slow the progressive neuronal loss in the substantial nigral and associated decreased levels of dopamine in the striatum that underlie the cardinal features of the disease. Both retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated an inverse association between cigarette smoking and PD, leading to theories that smoking in general and nicotine in particular might be neuroprotective (Rennard, 2008). Nicotine has been shown in animals to stimulate the release of dopamine in the striatum, and to preserve nigral neurons and striatal dopamine levels in laboratory and most specifically the animals with lesioned nigrostriatal pathways. Just like tobacco, Coffee and caffeine consumption have also been shown in epidemiological studies to be inversely related to PD risk. Caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist that enhances locomotors activity in animal models ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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