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Biology of food - Essay Example

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Yiting Liu Oct 26 2013 Biology of food 1.Speaking of tough-and-stringy beef, If a cow (or a person) eats more calories than they use, what happens to the "excess?" If a person eats more calories than they use, the excess calories are stored in the body as fat…
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Download file to see previous pages Insulin and leptin regulate food intake and body weight, thus consumption of high fructose corn syrup sauce contributes to increased energy ingestion and weight gain. This is because high fructose corn syrup is absorbed faster than general sugar (glucose) and it does not fuel the manufacture of insulin or leptin. This prevents body signals triggers for being full and leads to over consumption of calories consumed. Consumption of this sauce leads to the body storing the excess calories as fat. This fat storage is commonly evident with the increase of obesity rates and other diseases i.e. diabetes in America. 2.So here's our cow Rupert, trudging down to the Rio Grande, then back up to the plains to graze.  Nivanka starts trying to visualize what's going on in his leg muscles. Muscle tissue is disseminated almost everywhere in the body. Muscles are responsible for the movement of materials within and throughout the body. Muscles contain 4 unique characteristics: elasticity, extensibility, contractility, and excitability. Each skeletal muscle is made up of fascicles; which are bundles of muscle fibers. Muscle fibers have myofibrils; which are composed of myofilaments. Actin and myosin are located in muscle fibers. They play a role in muscle contraction; producing movement. In regard to muscle movement, the protein heads of myosin cross- bridges connect to an actin binding region and bend slightly; heaving actin filaments with it. This aids the muscle in movement production. Tropomyosin covers up the regions of attachment when the muscle is not contracting. ATP helps muscles to perform their functions. ATP is made by the muscles. The following steps make ATP: creatine phosphate is broken down by the addition of ADP to create ATP. Second step: Anaerobic respiration is carried out; glucose is broken down to lactic acid ATP is formed. Third step: Aerobic respiration is carried out, glucose, fats, amino acids, and glycogen is broken down in the existence of oxygen to create ATP. Energy obtained from ATP is used to reorganize the myosin cross- bridge protein head and liberate the actin filaments. The force of contraction in a muscle cell is generated by the cyclic interaction of two proteins, namely actin and myosin. The free energy that drives this reaction is obtained from the hydrolysis of ATP. ATP binding provokes a conformational revolutionization in myosin that deteriorates its actin affinity and causes myosin to detach from actin. ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and inorganic phosphate , and the hydrolysis products linger bound to myosin. Myosin rebinds to actin and the energy generating power-stroke convoys subsequent phosphate release. ADP is released, and the cycle reiterates upon ATP binding. When ATP connects to the myosin nucleotide location of an actomyosin complex, the myosin is quickly released from the actin filament. Myosin splits the ATP, and the myosin-products multifaceted rebinds to actin, pursued by product release. No, Rupert would not get very far as he would run out of ATP quickly. This is because the up and down activity requires energy. Energy is used in the form of ATP. In the absence of ATP, myosin binds tightly to actin. 3. Fortunately, there's more going on in cow muscles.  A molecule of glucose enters the cell.  Things happen to it in the cytoplasm.  Describe those things, taking care to mention: The following are the enzymes responsible for activities that take place when a molecule of gluco ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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