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Genetic Cloning - Essay Example

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Genetic Cloning Name: Course Professor Institution: In cloning, especially in humans, there are two key aspects of cloning and these include reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning, in which the former involves the creation of a new being while the latter is meant for curative purposes…
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Download file to see previous pages Human cloning is a controversial that elicits diverse reactions from all quarters and almost every member of the human race. The issue of cloning has caused much debate since the firs cloning of a live sheep in Scotland in 1997 (Allison, 2009). This is concerning ethics and authority to participate in the events leading to the creation of a new human being from the originally born one. This topic is crucial to the existence of human beings as it may be used to either improve their lives or degrade them. Genetic cloning takes place using embryonic stem cells, which is a concept that became known in the late 1990s with the isolation of the initial human embryo stem cell. This isolation works because embryonic stem cells can differentiate and form any human cell ranging from blood cells to skin cells, and it is from this that the idea to create perfect human beings first came into play. This is especially with potential use of stem cells to crate different organs and ensure that humans no longer suffer from conditions that can be healed through genetic cloning. The most popular means of cloning research done in the world today and from the 1970s is that of recombinant DNA technology, which entails replacement of molecular DNA fragments with those that are favourable to the host. This in human cloning is generating concerns in creation of super humans in that they select the best traits needed in humans and use recombinant DNA technology to fix these genes in host DNA (Bliss, 2012). The main way in which this technology has been used is through In-vitro fertilization that was discovered in the late 1970s, this has been used to date to eliminate undesirable traits in children and allow parents and scientists to pick out the traits, and conditions they would like to have their children. This is especially helpful I eliminating genetic conditions that parents may have in that the embryo is microscopically examined for signs of genetic disorders such as Tay - Sachs disease and Sickle Cell anaemia. Besides this, the creation of designer babies can be done after the child is already born, which is similar to vehicle maintenance through application of cannibalized parts from other vehicles. Children born with defects that were not detected during the genetic engineering process can undergo maintenance from selected genes from other children and genetically cloned parts. Genes, in this case refer to molecular units in a cell containing genetic information of heredity (Kaplan & Rdgers, 2003). This can be evidently seen in the case of Charlie Whitaker from the UK who was born with Diamond Blackfan anaemia, which prevented him from making his own red blood cells (Mclean, 2006). From this, genetic cloning allowed a designer baby to be made by correcting his situation at a young age by transplanting cells from his younger brother’s umbilical cord. This is indicative of some of the latest developments in human cloning to create designer babies through curative measures. The key idea in designer babies is anchored around four key concepts and these are prevention of genetic diseases, promotion of conception of healthy children, correction of defects before a womb rejects an embryo and elimination of potential organ transplants. Another type of cloning is somatic cells nuclear transfer, which involves transfer of the nucleus of a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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.... Thus it was concluded that leukemias can be treated with effective treatment by adult stem cells based on the process of cloning (Leukemia Patients Survive with Stem Cell Transplant, 2004). Similarly another research done by the UC researchers showed that bone marrow stem cells can be used to effectively treat disorders which are related to the eye. These stem cells can greatly help to cure the genetic eye disorders in children. Research done by the UC researchers was carried out on animals and the tests were positive. This showed that stem cells may also effectively work on human subjects to cure eye disorders (Bone Marrow Stem Cells May Cure Eye Disease, 2007). Not only this, but it was also found...
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...nuclear transfer” (Ellis-Christensen, 2013). This cell was stimulated to grow with the help of treatment with chemicals so that the cloned sheep’s exact replicate could be produced. However, Dolly was not its parent’s precise clone. Although it carried the same DNA, yet some of the donor cell’s genetic materials were also ingrained in the parentage of Dolly. Its 0.01 per cent presence in the DNA of Dolly made a negligible difference. Dolly’s cloning was complicated as it took up to 277 donor eggs along with the production of 29 embryos to achieve a live birth (Ellis-Christensen, 2013). Despite its genetic abnormalities and complications,...
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...Cloning: A Critical Review Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original. "A clone in the biological sense, therefore, is a single cellor multi-cellular organism that is genetically identical to another living organism." (Wikipedia, 2006). As a society in general, the majority of us have at least heard of the term 'cloning'. However at the same time, the majority of us are in fact not completely sure as to what cloning actually is. In order to come to a clearer and more understanding viewpoint on this subject matter, the elements surrounding the topic of cloning must be properly addresses. By...
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...intervention. Contrary to widespread belief, cloning can be considered a natural process, too. Natural cloning has been going on for billions of years. Natural cloning occurs when an organism reproduces asexually or when two genetically identical twins are produced by a splitting of a fertilized egg. For example, when one takes a stem from a yam plant and plant it in the ground, a new plant would grow as it takes root. The new plant can be considered a clone in the sense that it is identical to its parent. Similar cloning takes place in grass, potatoes and onions. This is a technique for propagating plants asexually. Humans have been...
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..., among other things, serve society as an effective alternative treatment for infertility. The cloning of animals has stirred the debate about the ethical, legal and social aspects regarding human cloning. Overview Cloning is the creation of an embryo by the method of human somatic cell nuclear transfer. This procedure involves implanting DNA cells from an organism into an egg whose DNA nucleus has been removed then chemically treated so that the egg begins to behave as though fertilization has occurred. This results in the creation of embryonic growth of another organism that contains the complete genetic code of the original organism. Through this process, the...
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...Cloning is a term that refers to a process where a copy of a plant or an animal can be produced from the same animal or plant cells. For instance, a single cell of an animal or plant can be used to produce an identical animal. Research has shown that this biological process can also be applied to human beings in about 50 years (Collins). Though the issue of cloning human beings has received criticisms from different sectors of society, it can be observed that some people advocate for this process as a result of different reasons. For instance, parents who lose their children can clone other siblings that will resemble the lost kids. According to Sir Johns, cloning humans...
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2. To what extent do you feel that genetic experimentation and development should be allowed, especially experiments that involve the creation of human life in the laboratory, stem cell research, and the cloning of human beings Answer in detail, providin

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...[Teacher’s Cloning Cloning has been one of the most widely discussed scientific topics in the past decade. Cloning has been applied in many fields including the creation of plants and animals. The key event marking the limitless potential of animal cloning was in 1997, when Willmut made the first animal clone of a lamb which was named Dolly (Wells, 251). However, the cloning of plants has been present for longer. The process involves the generation of genetically identical cells from one ancestral cell. For plants it is mainly utilized to create species with the ideal features for a particular environment. On the other...
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