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CELLULAR PATHOLOGY- Staining protocols - Essay Example

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Cellular Pathology experiment Name: University: Course: Date: Abstract The aim of the practical was to look at sections of small intestine (ileum), kidney and liver. These are sections that were already processed to paraffin wax, sectioned, fixed as well as mounted on slides…
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CELLULAR PATHOLOGY- Staining protocols
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Download file to see previous pages Several tissue components can be demonstrated by this stain. It is an important diagnostic tool in most clinical settings. Substances that consist of glycol groups or alkylamino and amino derivatives are normally oxidized to form. An insoluble pink/magenta chromogen is later formed after these dialdehydes Periodic acid combines with the Schiff’s reagent. In tissue sections PAS positive substances include: Amyloid, cartilage, collagen, mucins, glycogen, and basement membranes among others, together with some organisms such as fungi. Method: As per the hand-out Results: Figure 1: shows Glycogen detection in the liver with PAS Figure 2: Shows PAS stain with diastase in the Hepatocytes Detection of the liver with glycogen storage disease. Figure 3: Represents mucins PAS stain (Intestine Alcain Blue). Figure 4: Shows Kidney tissue section, with Bowman’s capsule. Discussion i) Glycogen Most carbohydrates are broken down by the body from the foods we eat; it is further converted to a sugar type referred to as glucose. The main fuel source for the cells is glucose. When glucose is no longer needed by the body for energy, it is stored in the muscles and liver. The glucose stored consists of many connected glucose molecules referred to as glycogen. When a quick energy boost is required by the body in cases where the body is not receiving any glucose from food, there is break down of glycogen that results to glucose release into the bloodstream to generate fuel for the cells.( Knebelmann et al,1996) Glycogen demonstration in tissue sections, for example for the liver section tissues, it can be used to differentiate between normal liver tissue and the abnormal liver tissue by looking at the morphology. The liver is the main organ that stores glycogen. Any observation made after staining of the liver tissue that is different from typical liver tissue staining will indicate that the tissue is not normal hence diseased. For example, liver and fatty liver cells, scar tissue (fibroblasts) can be used to differentiate between normal and abnormal liver tissues( hepatocytes) after staining because of the absence of glycogen in normal cells. The diastase use in enzymes digestion of glycogen acts as a control. Hence, two slides comparison can show an area occupied by glycogen. PAS Stains glycogen but there can be pre-digestion of tissue with diastase in order to remove glycogen. Clinical Implication of PAS Stain of Glycogen We have various GSD types.  Individuals with GSD are born with it.  In GSD, there is storage of abnormal glycogen amount in the liver. For an individual with GSD: The liver is not able to regulate the use of glucose and glycogen. Certain enzymes involved in the regulation of the conversion of glucose into glycogen or glucose release from glycogen are not present.   At least 10 different GSDs types do exist. These types are placed in categories based on the missing enzyme. The GSD forms that are most common includes: types I, III and IV. One in every 20,000 individuals can have a type of GSD. GSD I, also referred to as von Gierke condition: Is caused by enzyme Glucose-6-Phosphatase deficiency.  GSD III, also referred to as Cori disease: Is caused by debrancher enzyme deficiency. This leads to the body forming molecules of glycogen with abnormal structure. This unusual structure prevents the breakdown of glycogen into free glucose as well.  GSD IV also referred to as amylopectinosis:  increased glycogen amount in the tissues is not experienced. Instead, the building up ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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