Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a chronic arterial occlusive disease of the lower extremities as result of atherosclerosis. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) produces detailed images of blood vessels and tissues of the extremities, and is thus, helpful in the diagnosis of PAD. …
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Further, with the 16-detector row CT (16D-CT), the spatial resolution increased and the contrast medium efficiency improved. Finally, with the 64-detector row CT (64D-CT) scanner, a true isotropic high spatial resolution of the entire volume was possible. Thus, the multi-detector row CT angiography (MDCTA) has developed as an accurate method in assessing the peripheral arteries.
This is the clinical history of a 70-year old man who presented in the hospital with symptoms of pain in the calf muscle with walking that was relieved with rest. He also gave a history of diabetes and hypertension for the past 25 years. Although he was taking medication for both diabetes and hypertension, it was poorly controlled. Blood analysis revealed an elevated fasting and postprandial sugar values. Physical examination revealed an elevated blood pressure measurement. Examination of the feet revealed distal hair loss, trophic skin changes and hypertrophic nails. There was ulceration in the heel. Social history revealed that he was a chronic smoker for the past 30 years and had a sedentary lifestyle. His physician advised him to undergo a CT angiography and he presented in the radiology department for the same.
Atherosclerosis, which primarily is a systemic inflammatory process, is the most common cause of PAD. Histopathologically, an atherosclerotic lesion is initiated with the appearance of fatty streaks, which initiates an inflammatory process. This promotes the deposition of cholesterol, and finally, plaque buildup (Garcia 2006). Plaque is made up of fat, fibrin, cellular waste products, cholesterol and calcium.
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(Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words)
“Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1566962-peripheral-arterial-disease-pad.
According to the paper more problems arise as at advanced stages of life, patients are usually besotted with multiple comorbidities requiring pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, which might interfere with each other. Evidence based, judicious decisions therefore need to be taken at each passing moment, making the task onerous as well as difficult.
Some of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, such patients’ are subjected to, may be contradictory in nature and may require emergency treatment. Evidence based, judicious decisions therefore need to be taken at each instance, making the task onerous as well as difficult for the nursing practitioner.
The study has initially identified risk factors: both systemic and local, which increases preponderance for the development of foot ulcers. Specifically, seven variables were noted to be directly associated with the development of foot ulcers, to wit: neuropathy, callus, deformity, elevated peak pressure, vascular disease, ill-fitting footwear.
In this regard, no automobile can function efficiently without a car brake. Car brakes are vital for automobiles because they assist in slowing down or stopping a vehicle in motion. In most cars, such as passenger cars, car brakes are operated on through legs.
The medical fraternity and nurses in particular can effectively contribute towards patient care through proper clinical interventions and lifestyle changes that would promote the health of the patients. Nurses play a key role in the diagnosis, treatment, intervention and prevention of arterial hypertension in patients.
The idea that cannulation is solely the responsibility of the medical staff needs to be changed. The nurses in the unit need to believe and accept that it is their responsibility to safely and effectively manage the patients on intravenous therapy (NMC, 2004).
The outcomes are realistic and there are studies that support the outcomes One that is an example was completed by Winterer, Schaefer, and Uhrmeister (2002) in which they contrasted the MR angiography against the DSA and had similar outcomes. The researchers involved were all a part of the Departments of Radiology at the University Hospital of Basei, each was an MD with the exception of one that is a PhD.
iduals with diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, or hyperhomocysteinemia and cigarette smoking have an increased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease. These lesions usually involve segments of an artery causing narrowing or occlusion, and these are usually
The author explains that some of the risk factors for PAD include cigarette smoking, increased plasma homocysteine levels, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Rare causes are hypercoagulable states, such as protein C or S deficiency or antithrombin III deficiency, and the vasospastic syndromes.
The work is about financial forecasting. It is aimed at showing the essence of the financial plan and its parts. It is exemplified with a model of the financial plan. Each part of the financial plan is discussed separately.
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