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Cardiorespiratory - Essay Example

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Cancer represents one of the most frightening diagnosis in medicine, despite cardiovascular diseases' prominence in worldwide mortality rates. The reason for such an attitude toward this diagnosis is based in several, widely accepted, in both patients and physicians, beliefs; cancers have a higher ratio of incidence to mortality than cardiovascular diseases, despite the latter's higher incidence and mortality rates…
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Download file to see previous pages According to World Health Organization, in 2007 7,9 million people died from cancer, which is 13% of all deaths in the world. It is estimated that 9 million people would perish till 2015, and 11,4 million till 2030. Even though the WHO stresses that most of the cancers are found in low and middle income countries, cancers are quite prevalent in Western countries. For example, according to the American Cancer Association (ACA), in 2005 559 312 people died from cancer, or 22,8% of all deaths, which is only 4% less than heart diseases.
The cancer which we are going to focus on is the most prevalent cancer amongst cancer patients- lung cancer. The WHO states that 1,4 million people have died of lung cancer in 2007 and it is still the most prevalent cancer in both men and women, with 31% of cancer deaths amongst men and 26% of cancer deaths amongst women in the US, according to the ACA.
A male, non-smoking, 48 year-old patient presents with chest pain and shortness of breath, and a detailed anamnesis morbi is taken. Indeed, these are symptoms that can be attributed to many illnesses such as pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, pleuritis, lung cancer, and rib fractures. Also, there are several examples of cardiac induced chest pain, which is usually a sigh of a problem that requires and urgent reaction, mainly myocardial infarction. The patient also presented with fever, sweating, general weakness and loss of weight. More information is necessary, so the patient is asked if there are any other symptoms (cough, headaches and similar ailments) and how long have tehy lasted. A cough less than 3 week is usually referred to as a acute cough and it would be a sigh of upper respiratory infection, especially the common cold. It can also be a result of pneumonia, and the presence of a postnasal drip can also point to rhinitis or sinusitis that can be allergic, viral, or bacterial in origin. Cough may rarely be the only presenting symptom of pulmonary embolus. In the elderly, acute cough may signify aspiration or heart failure, as conditions that are more serious. A cough lasting more than 3 months to up to 2 years represents a chronic cough and can be usually found in smokers, caused by chronic bronchitis. There is a possibility of an upper airway tumor's presence, which is less common, but should be considered. The most common causes regardless of smoking history include postnasal drip syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), asthma (cough-variant asthma), and use of ACE inhibitors. Less common causes include eosinophilic bronchitis (characterized by sputum eosinophilia without airway hyperresponsiveness) and bronchiectasis. The causes of chronic cough in children are similar to those of adults, but aspiration and pertussis must also be considered. Tracheobronchitis after a upper respiratory infection is a common cause of cough but rarely lasts more then 3 after the infection. The patient stated that he had a cough that lasted more than three months, and it had no hemotyzis, which is typical, but not necessary, sign of cancer or tuberculosis. Symptoms in other organ systems, such as the urinary, nervous and locomotory, were not reported. The patient is then asked ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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