StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you understand by this termGive a bacterial, parasitic - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Infectious Disease and Processes Institution Instructor Date Infectious Disease and Processes Opportunistic Infections Generally, the word opportunistic refers to a situation where something/someone takes an immediate unethical advantage of a particular circumstance in order to achieve specific benefits…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.3% of users find it useful
Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you understand by this termGive a bacterial, parasitic
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you understand by this termGive a bacterial, parasitic"

Download file to see previous pages At this time, the opportunistic organisms get an opportunity to spread as well as grow fast, hence, causing severe illness. Though such infections can be seen in a healthy person, their growth and spread is highly hindered. In cases of opportunistic infections, a chance is created for nonpathogenic microorganisms to become pathogenic and very harmful (Mitnick et al, 2003, p. 119). These infections mostly manifest themselves in people already infected with viruses like HIV, for instance Tuberculosis (TB). Tuberculosis (TB) as an Opportunistic Infection Viral Example Tuberculosis is an air-borne disease that usually affects the respiratory system (lungs) and is caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis bacteria (Currie et al, 2003, p. 2501). It can also affect other body parts like the spine and the kidneys. It is a serious infection that kills a large percentage of people worldwide, especially if not effectively treated. Approximately 2 billion people of the world’s population give positive results to TB tests annually, of which about 3 million end up dying. TB infections had almost become extinct in developed countries before the emergence of HIV epidemic. With the onset of the HIV virus, TB infections were found to be very rampant and severe in people affected with the virus (Jones et al, 2000, p. 1031). This is simply because the HIV virus makes the body’s immune system weak, thus, promoting the growth and spread of the TB bacteria. The close link between HIV and TB was stressed and emphasized during a conference concerned with retroviruses as well as opportunistic infections (CROI) (Mitnick et al, 2003, p. 128). At the conference, a report was release analyzing the recent emergence of TB bacteria which is drug resistant. The World Health Organization (WHO) tried to establish the relationship between this drug-resistant bacteria and the HIV virus. A study was carried out in South Africa where it found out that XDR TB was resistant to a number of drugs meant to treat it, including isoniazid. This was the new case which was discovered however since then beyond 300 new cases have been reported (Tufariello, Chan & Flynn, 2003, p. 578). Nevertheless, it was discovered that people who exhibited such cases positively tested for the HIV virus. The micro-organism that usually causes TB is transmitted from one person to another through air (CDC, 2000, p. 185). These micro-organisms can spread as a result of a cough or sometimes an open sneeze. It is not in all cases that a person can get infected with TB by just a single sneeze or a cough. However, if you are frequently exposed to such sneezes and coughs, the likelihood is very high. This can occur in cases where you live or mostly work with a TB infected individual. Moreover, you can easily get TB in places that are ventilated poorly or crowded (Espinal et al, 2000, p. 275). By so saying, it does not mean that one can get infected through sharing utensils or physically contacting a person who has it. There are mainly two types of infections classified as TB which are differentiated using their different ways of manifestations (Lonnroth et al, 2009, p. 2240). The first one is referred to as latent and this one has no symptoms thus remains in your body in an inactive form. The second one is called active which mostly affects people whose immune system is impaired. In this case, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1453119-many-microbial-infections-are-described-as
(Many Microbial Infections Are Described As Opportunistic. What Do You Essay)
https://studentshare.org/biology/1453119-many-microbial-infections-are-described-as.
“Many Microbial Infections Are Described As Opportunistic. What Do You Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1453119-many-microbial-infections-are-described-as.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you understand by this termGive a bacterial, parasitic

Commensal and Parasitic Barnacles

...or the assymetrical sessile barnacles do not have the peduncle, which means that the capitulum is directly in contact with the substratum. This contact therefore forms a rigid wall and in other species there is the formation of the operculum or movable lid. The presence of the operculum somehow makes the Verrucomorpha and other sessile barnacles to be better adapted to many different kinds of habitats. However, the Verrucomorpha, in particular, is mostly found in deep water (Newman & Abbott). Just like the Verrucomorpha barnacles, the Balanomorpha or symmetrically sessile barnacles, or acorn barnacles, they also do not have the peduncle but have a rigid wall and an operculum. However,...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Opportunistic Microbial Infections

...?OPPORTUNISTIC MICROBIAL INFECTIONS Introduction Microorganisms present in the healthy body are collectively termed as normal flora. Their positive effects include their priming the immune system, and in blocking or inhibiting invading pathogens from colonizing the body. The negative effects of normal microbial flora are that they are “major causes of opportunistic infections that develop under permissive conditions”1 of lowered host defences and immunocompromisation. Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to examine “opportunisticmicrobial infections; and to...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Opportunistic Microbial Infections

...? “OpportunisticMicrobial InfectionsOpportunisticMicrobial Infections Opportunistic germs are bacteria and fungi that are found in the mucosae and the skin of external media. They then become virulent when the general immune resistance of the organism drops. This occurs under the influence of factors that favor the change. An example of this is some drugs, and the infections that arise from opportunistic germs have of late become more frequent. The occasional contact of an individual with these bacteria makes the prophylaxis and the diagnosis of their diseases extremely difficult, in hospitals. An individual’s immune system is in a fair condition when it is able to counteract these germs. When the immune system is weak... fatal...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Microbial Biofilms

...measurement of individual microorganisms with relative ease. Light microscopy techniques, although unable to reproduce the high magnification of the methods described above, are still of importance in the examination of intact biofilms. HMC allows the in situ examination of biofilms, a clear image is produced without artefacts. DIC may be used to examine biofilms on opaque surfaces and if used in conjunction with fluorescent vital stains can be used to assess the viability of the microbial population. (Surman et al, 1996) Viability of the microbial biofilm populations can also be determined by LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability staining kit (Hentzer 2001) The...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

PARASITIC WORMS

.... Consequently, infective larvae called the cercariae are released from these snails and enter humans that wade in water in which they are present. These larvae migrate to the human intestine or the bladder where they mature, mate and produce eggs. Initial infestation may be asymptomatic, causing only a transient itching or fever, but long term infestation can lead to serious organ damage(Clark, 2006). Infective worms that are acquired through contact with contaminated soil are called soil transmitted helminthes, and they include the whipworm, hookworms and roundworms. Their fertilized eggs are laid in soil to mature. Poor hygiene is a predisposing factor to their prevalence. The...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Bacterial Meningitis

...with the infected person. After infection, the organism attaches to the mucosal lining of the nose and throat where they multiply and later penetrate the lining to enter in to the blood stream. The organism then moves to the brain and to various other organs. Symptoms The initial symptoms of the disease, which may appear suddenly, are similar to those of flu and include high fever, headache, stiff neck and nausea. Students who present with 2 or more of these symptoms at a given time should seek immediate medical attention. When left untreated the disease can cause long-term disabilities such as brain damage, hearing loss and seizures. Vulnerable communities While infants are most...
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework

Describe how you understand ANOVA

...Understanding the ANOVA When attempting to examine the potential differences between three or more groups of scores; it is necessary to examine thesegroups simultaneously. Pair wise comparisons are not only tedious and time consuming; but also prone to error. Since we have to accept a minimum possibility of error for each comparison made; the chances for type I error to occur across a large number of comparisons keeps increasing exponentially with the number of comparisons (Guilford, & Fruchter, 1973). For three groups, there will be 3 comparisons; for four groups there will be six comparisons and so on. In order to contain the error and compare all groups simultaneously, the Analysis of Variance or ANOVA may be used. The ANOVA... the ANOVA...
1 Pages(250 words)Case Study

Fables: give before you receive

...Fables Give before you receive Long time ago, far away in the woods lived a rabbit and a greedy monkey.The monkey was a farmer and owned a large piece of land where he grew so many bananas. He virtually owned the whole forest with huge plantations of bananas. The monkey would buy all the bananas in stock on market each time he went to town. One day on his way back home he saw a poor starving rabbit. The rabbit asked him if he could spare him just one banana. “No, I cannot” said the monkey. At the moment he was talking the king lion was behind him but he had not noticed. Lion told him to give an explanation as to why he could not help the poor starving rabbit. The monkey...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Parasitic Parasites

...of resistance. The study would also help in generating genetic markers which may be used for characterization and distribution of the sub-populations of the parasites. Moreover, the study would help in understanding the disease pathology of mutant strains and derive anti-malarial drugs that will effective on the mutants as well. Reference Anderson TJ, et al.(2000). Microsatellite markers reveal a spectrum of population structures in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biol Evol.17:1467–82 Bousema,T., and Drakeley,G.(2011). Epidemiology and Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum andPlasmodium vivax Gametocytes in...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Examination of Bacterial Infections

...Infections Lecturer Affiliation Due A keen examination of bacterial infections will provide facts concerning the conditions necessary to spread an infection, the nature of a potential host and the modes of pathogen transmission. According to Pinto et al. (2014), the three elements necessary to spread an infection include; a source of infecting micro-organisms, mode of micro-organism transmission and a susceptible host. The source of infecting microorganisms generates the pathogens that infect the susceptible host through certain means of transmission that might involve fluid transmission, contamination or...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Many microbial infections are described as opportunistic. What do you understand by this termGive a bacterial, parasitic for FREE!

Contact Us